HISTORICAL ADVERTISEMENT: Washing Machine

While doing laundry one day, I imagined what was life before the washing machine. Just out of curiosity I checked the true date the washing machine came into existence and was surprised by the result. Though I didn’t get one particular date I did come across several advertisements related to the washing machine printed in nearly ancient times and I chose to do my historical advertisement paper on the washing machine.

The first advertisement that I came across belonged to a company called P. Mallory & Co. that had invented the automatic timer switch for the washing machine. At first I was kind of confused by looking at that advertisement because I did not see the requirement of an image of a Bombardier Jet, which was used during the war. It however piqued my interest and I continued to read the entire text. The advertisement stated that the automatic time switch was also used as a part on the Bombardier Jet and the advertisement was to declare that this switch would now be used only in washing machines, now that the war had gotten over. This advertisement shows that the main beneficiaries of adding this switch to the washing machine would be the housewives who were sick and tired of doing their laundry by hand.

The second advertisement is a black and white advertisement. The billboard with this advertisement appeared in 1946. This advertisement included all the functions of the washing machine including rinsing, drying and washing at the touch of a button. It targets the housewives. The ad shows a little girl peering which shows that handling the washing machine was easy and doable by even children of that age and you didn’t need someone with expertise and rough hands to work it or do the laundry. This advertisement shows the washing machine in the shape, form and size similar to what exists today.

The video advertisement I saw was one by whirlpool in 1956. The advertisement was childish and immature showing two puppets talking to an old woman. The advertisement showed that in those days there weren’t too many machines that were capable of being used as a washing machine or as a machine to reduce effort while doing laundry. In the advertisement while one puppet argues that there is no machine that she can use to ease her effort the other puppet brings out the whirlpool machine on her request showing to the audience and the viewers that on the contrary there existed such a machine in the market.

The fourth and the last advertisement that I found is probably the oldest piece of paper that I have ever come across which means the ad was even before World War 1 and before the time of Gandhi in the year 1869. The advertisement is on yellow paper, which once may have been white and shows a very dignified house lady in a very British attire standing beside the machine, turning the handle. The machine itself is just a huge barrel with a kind of device looking like a sewing machine attached to the top. The tagline states ‘Celebrated Home Washer’ because in those days there never existed multiple companies manufacturing a single product and even if there did, there was always one who enjoyed the monopoly and the company that released this ad was one of them. Now if we see the date this ad was released we can deduce that before this there existed no such pre cursor for the benefit of woman and house ladies doing laundry.

This advertisement when compared to the second advertisement released by Bendix shows a complete transformation and evolution of the washing machine in over ninety years. The latter of the two advertisements shows and depicts a picture of the machine closer home because the shape, the size and even the look of it is similar and somewhat exactly the same to the modern day machine we use at home or in the Laundromat.

Researching these advertisements on washing machines makes me appreciate the ones we have in our dorm because before the first washing machine in the 1860’s I don’t think there existed such a device and my efforts would have been multiplied to no limit. As it has happened with all gadgets and machines, with time they have evolved into something that has made the daily lives of the human race easier than ever before. Washing machines being such an integral part of every household has caused the competition to grow leading to more and more commercial advertisements over the years.

Works Cited

Advertisement 1:

Mallory “Out of the Washing Machine Into the Superforts” R0731. Advertisement. 1945. Duke U. Rare Book and ManuscriptLib. Ad*Access. Web. 1 Dec 2014

Advertisement 2:

Bendix “Bendix Automatic Home Laundry – washes – rinses – damp – drys All Automatic!” BBB5319. Advertisement. 1946. Duke U. Rare Book and ManuscriptLib. Ad*Access. Web. 1 Dec 2014

Advertisement 3:

Whirlpool “1956 Commercial For Whirlpool Washing Machine”. Advertisement.1956. Television.

https://archive.org/details/1956CommercialForWhirlpoolWashingMachine

Advertisement 4:

Home Manufacturing Company “Descriptions, Testimonials and Directions of the Celebrated Home Washer”A0478. Advertisement. Ca.1869. Duke U. Rare Book and ManuscriptLib. Ad*Access. Web. 1 Dec 2014

Much Ado About Connoisseur

What do Sherlock Holmes, Carlo Ginzburg and Rob Rhinehart (of Soylent’ Fame) have in common? All the mentioned individuals are connoisseur in their fields. While Holmes is the archetypal Scientist. He carefully solves all cases one after another by his systematic, unemotional approach to solving mysteries. He has ability to separate fact from theory. “I make a point of never having any Prejudice”, he tells Inspector Forrester (The Adventure of the Reigate Squires’). Holmes relies on intuition and mysterious flashes of insight. “See the value of imagination”, he tells Watson in Silver Blaze. Holmes definitely is a connoisseur of his field. His scientific mastery and individual intuition or training has made him one of the most famous fictional character in the world. Calling Holmes a connoisseur of scientific mastery, individual intuition, intelligence, would be an understatement. Similarly Carlo Ginzburg and Rob Rhinehart too is connoisseur of their respective fields. Such individuals make us examine ourselves to attain perfection.

Connoisseur comes from Middle-French ‘connaitre’ meaning “to be acquainted with” or “to know somebody or something”. A connoisseur is a person who has a great deal of knowledge about the find arts, cuisines, or an expert judge in matters of taste.

On the basis of empirical evidence, refinement of perception about technique and form, and a disciplined method of analysis, the responsibility of the connoisseur is to attribute authorship, validate authenticity and appraise quality. Connoisseur is also used in the context of gastronomy, i.e. in connection with fine food, beer, wine, tea and many other products whose consumption can be pleasing to the senses.

A ‘Gastronome’ is a food and wine expert.

An ‘Oenologist’ is a wine expert.

An ‘epicurean’ appreciates good food and wine.

In her article ‘The End of Food’ (May 12,2014) Lizzie Widdcombe wrote about Rob Rhinehart, a Tech entrepreneur who comes up with a product (soylent) to replace our meal! Sounds interesting as well as eerie. Rob who is living in a claustrophobic apartment in San Francisco, is forced by his financial circumstances to come up with something innovative. To mitigate grocery bills and stave off scury. He went straight to the raw components that make our food. He compiled 35 nutrients required for survival and came up with slurry of chemicals that looked like gooey Lemonade. He called his potion ‘soylent’. According to him, ‘soylent’ has many benefits. First it saves time and money. Second, it improves health (Dandruff gone!). Third, it reduces green house gas emission, saves water and agriculture land. So does this makes Rob a Connoisseur or Gastronome? You bet! He has deep knowledge about food, and is an expert judge in matter of taste (even though soylent tastes like grandpa’s Metamucil). He has appraised food quality. However, press has heralded soylent as “The end of food” as many cyptic critics, orthodox people cannot fathom the fact that Soylent would bring an end to traditional agriculture; (Rob describes it as dirty job for underclass) Kitchen cooking; vegetable and other food shopping! Even though critics are doubtful of soylent, Rob is confident about its future. “I think the best technology is the one that disappears,” he said.

In ‘A Brief History of Scent’, writer Beau Friedlander discusses an entertaining variety of off-Label uses for the smell of cadavers, including “Stench Soup”. She looks at the way in which we and what makes for a truly awful stink. She adds that the smell of a place at a particular moment follows the same rules as any perfume, but with a for greater degree of complexity. She meticulously observes that the smell in her block (in Brooklyn) is in fact mixture of various heart notes of gasoline, fallen leaves, car exhaust and others.

Fried Lander definitely makes us pensive about power of smell on our mood, food, culture; belief systems smell can evoke different time and era too. As it is said ‘one man’s meat is another man’s poison.’  A smell associated with a particular culture may smell offensive to others but there are smells that are universally accepted by all, and only a Connoisseur of cuisines, taste and smell can identify how certain cuisines and taste have universal appeal.

Who are we to judge Connoisseur of various fields! These great individuals in their respective fields only guide us to have more mastery in our own field and be in tune to our intuitions to reach Zenith of perfection.

An Eye Opener

It is quite disheartening and sad that activities meant to simulate the experience of disability are so often lauded, eye-opening experiences. With just a few hours in a wheelchair, wearing earplugs or wearing a blindfold, people supposedly gain a deeper understanding of what life with a disability truly entails.

In this article “Disability Awareness Draws Scrutiny” by Carls Straumsheim (March 7,2013). Mr. Straumshein believes that such event meant to raise awareness actually reinforces stereotypes and pity toward people with disability. He is supported by Miss Jillian Weise (who walks with a prosthetic leg). According to the latter, “It (simulation event) assumes that a non disabled participant can understand disabilities totally and completely by wearing goggles or by wearing headphones” I have to agree to both of the above views. Even in the 21st century for many of us , disability is an identity and a culture, as are race , religion, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation etc. Now, imagine if school and organizations began to hold widespread Black Awareness events, during which white people would put on black face and go around in public for a few hours to gain an understanding of the experiences of black people. I think it’s an understatement to say that would rightfully result in a nationwide angry uproar for several reasons.

First of all, the term “awareness” makes minority groups sound like a problem. Second, a brief activity can never replace a lifetime of experiences. If being black, disabled or other are identities, why are disability awareness averts the only one of its kind deemed to be acceptable, while awareness averts for other identities would undoubtedly be deemed offensive? To me, it feels like the opposite of acceptance to their entire identity as person with a physical disability reduced to an isolated simulation experience. The article on the other hand, does supports disability simulation. Miss Arlene Stewart (Director of student disability services) said that the goal of the event was” to put students with disabilities in contact with influential policy makers on campus. “Her views are supported by Dan Hofman who believes that such events ‘gives new perspective on how to make the campus more accessible to people with disabilities” I agree with both. Colleges and schools are the correct platform to raise any issues like ‘disability simulation’s both students -who are future nation builder and professors -whose sagacious and genuine understanding of any issue can bring about positivity by not offending the physical challenged people as media and movies generally do.

Similarly, Miss Sarah Gibbson in her article ‘Simulating Autism’ focuses on autism and its merits as well as demerits to physically challenged people. She points that in Autism challenges cannot be lessened through manipulating external controls. Moreover, there are no clear objectives that need to be achieved despite the environmental difficulty. It lacks a cohesive narrative structure and distinct player objectives and isn’t enjoyable to play. She further highlights that autism induces fear to capture the experiences of autistic people. Sherly Burgstahler and Tanis Doe support her. They argue that if disability simulation are to be used it must be designed not to capture the daily experience with attention to disability as a social and political experience. They also caution that trying on disability by using wheelchair does not provide insight into the strategies that individual develop overtime to manage their environment. The panic that a player might experience of disability and may reinforce the assumption that being able-bodied or neurotype is objectively preferable to being disabled. I vehemently agree with their views. A normal being pushing a wheelchair around in no way gives them a genuine understanding of what it feels like for a disabled person to wheel around and be stopped in his or her tracks by a high curb everyday. In each case the simulation isn’t natural or accurate. An able bodied person by using external devices cannot emote the deep internal experiences of some one not been gifted.

Finally, we can be aware of disabled people. We can attempt to roll a mile in their wheelchair. We can analyze and discuss and dissect the experience from a million different angels. But we must move away from equating empathy with acceptance .We must embrace differences as a fact of human existence without first needing to imitate them. For these kinds of activities are not effectively contributing to long-term advancement in the disability right movement.

I would take the liberty to end this essay by dedicating it to one of my old friend who is physically challenged and has been on wheel chair since the age of 10yrs.I called him up and asked him about disability simulation and he answered “You abled guys now’ve found a new platform to mock us and make us feel more pity and guilty of our differences” I was speechless. Then asked aren’t there any benefits? To that he said “only one benefit I can see, it will generate awareness amongst you guys. Thank you.” I was silent and started with my essay.

tactility and proprioception

The purpose of this essay is to explain ‘tactility’ and proprioception’.

Tactility means the capability of being felt or touched. A tactile sensor is a device that measures information arising from physical interaction with its environment. They are modeled after the biological sense of ‘Cutaneous Touch’ that is capable of detecting stimuli resulting from mechanical stimulation, temperature, and pain. They are employed where physical interaction sensing is required, including robotics, computer hardware and security system. One common example is touch screen devices used in phones and computing.

‘Proprioception’ is the sense of the relative position of neighboring parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement. It is provided by proprioceptors in skeletal striated muscles and in joints.

‘Kinesthesia’ closely refers to proprioception alone. The initiation of proprioception is activation of proprioception in the periphery. Proprioceptors are also called ‘adequate stimuli’ receptors are found in fruit flies, African clawed frogs and Zebra fish. The human proprioceptor has yet to be discovered.

Proprioception is tested by American police officers using the field sobriety test to check for alcohol intoxication. The subject is required to touch his or her nose with eyes closed; people with normal proprioception may make an errors of no more than 20 mm, while people suffering from impaired proprioception fail this test due to difficulty locating their limbs in space relative to their noses.

According to Barthes, foaming, burning and depth are tactile metaphors whose meanings are mostly unconscious and culturally specific.

Some senses are emphasized by a culture and others become the target of repression for example, Desana men would appear to use ‘sight’ as a substitute for ‘touch’ when they relive birth and other sexually related experiences through.  The visual imagery of ‘hallucinations.’ In Islamic society, the repression of ‘sight’ which results from the prohibition on the visual representation of ‘God’ and the fear of being accused of casting the ‘evil eye’ would seem to be designed to emphasize hearing the word of ‘God’. Every culture strikes its own balance among the senses. While some tend towards an equality of the senses, most culture manifest some bias privileging a particular sense for example.

Blood a variety of sensory properties; Its is warm, viscous, red salty and odorous. Thus, north Americans tend to think of blood in terms of its visual appearance, its redness. In South India, practitioners of siddha medicines give priority to tactile dimension of blood; The pulse it produces within the body.

Sara Hendren, writer editor of ‘Ables’ links art and design together with high and low-tech prosthetics, both practical and speculative to explore questions about ability, disability, the normalized and medicalized body, and more.

One of the object in Abler that caught my attention ‘Slope: Intercept’ architecture project, organized around the inclined plane. It’s a material and digital set of work, documenting the material ramps she builds, installs, and uses with others, and gathering ramps of all kinds. In the broadest sense, this project is about the inclined plane as an overlooked technology. It is also about the inclined plane as a technology of elevations, plural. Its elevations are Mathematical and industrial but also social, political and cultural. It is pragmatic, futuristic, potable, economical and intelligent in design and use. Its only shortfall is that has not been marketed well. Also, its newness-design might make some people dubious of its practical usage.

As Sara says, “I wanted all these artworks & engineering work to be rich and generative as they provoke in the imagination and also the critical conversations they spark about abled and disabled bodies.”

How Research Changed Me

A happy joint family with my grandparents, my uncle-aunt with their two children Raj and Rani, my parents, my brother Yash and me lived in a single huge bungalow. Celebrations, meals and work all were together. My father used to look after the production in the factory, while my uncle who was older to my father used to see to the marketing and finance. We grew, joint work. I was told to join my dad, while Raj was already under his dad’s training. Life was going smooth, no worry.

One day just happened to walk into the office just to meet up with Raj. A meeting was going on so was told to wait in his cabin. I told his secretary to not inform him as I came casually. While I was sitting in his cabin the office bearer put file on his desk and left. It had been an hour of wait, my eyes went on the file, PERSONAL WEALTH was written in bold capital letters. Don’t know what prompted me but I took that file in my hand and opened to see. As I was reading, I was shocked with surprise and confused. Looked at every bit of the details. I could not stay any longer.

I called my dad and told him to come home immediately. When dad arrived, we sat separately in an enclosed room and I spoke about the file I saw. It said that uncle Raj had a stronger personal wealth than we had. I felt it was injustice. My father did not utter a word and was all right about it. But I was full of anger and could not understand as why dad was so cool about it. My dad has always been a workaholic and I have never seen him demand anything for himself. My uncle used to take number of holidays with the family and sometime we also accompanied them. Dad saw me very upset so made me sit with him and held my hand. He said whatever I do for the family is less and they have given my family and me a greater deal. I could not understand as to why dad is speaking so highly about them when they are cheating on us.

The story broke which was told to never share it with us. My grandfather got my father from the steps of a religious place when he went on a visit to Punjab. Little was known about my father’s birth, his parents just left him there for hours and he was crying in hunger when grandfather picked him up. Uncle knew about this, but treated him as his own, took care of him always. I had great fondness for the family. But now its much greater respect, I felt what we are today is only because of my grandparents and uncle. I too owe them all my life and decided that like my father I will never forget their good deed. Never let them down.

The Adventure of the Cardboard Box: Literature or Not?

Mark Twain once said, “Great books are weighed and measured by their style and manner and not by the trimmings and shading of their grammar”. ‘The Adventure of the Cardboard Box’ by Arthur Conan Doyle published in 1892 meets our expectations about literature.

‘The Adventure of the Cardoard box’ is the 56th short story in ‘The Memories of Sherlock Holmes’ .More than a million books has been printed, translated in several languages and praised by many popular writers. But there are many other elements that makes it worthy. First, a good work of literature is timely. Usually it is an expression of and influence on the times in which it was written. Cardboard box was inspired by Henry Ward Beecher’s trial -one of the most widely reported American trials of the 19th century. In Cardboard box, the two villains :Jim Browner(legally)and Miss Sarah Cashing(morally) indulge in adultery act.

Secondly, a good work of literature is timeless. It deals with themes that touches all periods of history, societies and culture. Often the theme deal with good versus evil, love and forgiveness etc.In Cardboard box, Jim Browner confesses his crime. He is so tormented by guilt at his act that he would welcome being hanged. Sherlock Holmes and Inspector Lestrade represents the good where as Jim and Sarah represents the evil.

The character in a good literature is deep but believable. This is exemplified in this story. All the characters from Sherlock Holmes, Dr Watson,Sarah to Jim Browner are believable characters. They exist in reality unlike super heroes like spiderman or superman. They are engaging, interesting and multi dimensional.

Real work of literature presents truth. Any author can develop a story so that evil appears inevitable ,lying pays off and hate or revenge are good. However, though these responses in life seem justified at times but they never pay off in the long run. In Cardboard box Sarah the real villan tries to seduce Jim Browner and when he rejects her advances, sets out to wreck out his marriage with her sister Mary. Jim the legal villan of the story wants to horrify Sarah rather than Susan because he blamed Sarah for causing the trouble that culminated in the murder of his wife Mary and her extramarital lover. Jim’s crime is paid off when he is arrested by Lestrade. Lastly the hero overcomes one major obstacle at the climax of the story so that his ultimate goal is reached and success achieved. Holmes with his presence of mind examines the parcel and is convinced that it is evidence of serious crime. The handwriting on the package and the knot in the string makes him come close to the real killer. Although Holmes finds the solution simple and asks Lestrade not to mention his name yet he reaches the goal of catching the killer and achieves success.

The Sandman and Her

Freud relates uncanny from German etymology ‘unheimlich’ with its base word ‘heimlich’ (hidden), he proposes that social taboo often yields an aura not only of pious reverence but even more so of horror and even disgust, as the taboo state of an item that give rise to the common place-assumption that which is hidden from the public eye must be a dangerous. Threat and even an abomination especially if the concealed item is obviously sexual in nature. Such uncanny elements are perceived as threatening by our superego with Oedipal guilt as it fears symbolic castration by punishment for deviating from societal norms. Thus, the items and individuals that we project our own repressed impulses upon become a most uncanny. Threat to us, uncanny monsters and freaks akin to fairy-tale, folk-devils, and subsequently often become scapegoats we blame for all sorts of perceived miseries, calamities and maladies.

In the story ‘The Sandman’ by E.T.A Hoffmann and the movie ‘Her’ directed by Spike Jonze, the protagonist falls in love with an artificial woman. Although ‘The Sandman’ and ‘Her’ are both popular in their storytelling, their styles and expectations differ significantly. While ‘Her’ maintains a highly structured science fiction romantic comedy-drama to keep the various entertained, ‘The Sandman’ downplays structure in order to allow readers to push themselves and their imagination. In ‘The Sandman’, the protagonist Nathanael is a narcissistic with a manic sense of mission. He suffers from childhood terror of the legendary Sandman, who was said to steal the eyes of children. He believes coppelius, a fear instilling, large and malformed man to spoil happiness from him and his siblings in their childhood.

He shares his childhood fears with Klara, his sweet heart. Klara believes his childhood trauma is of Nathanael’s own imagining and urges him to put it away from his mind but Nathanael is unable to do so. In fact, it drives him towards a gloomy mysticism, which bores Klara and leads to gradual estrangement. She calls him insane. His frustration leads to call her an animate, automation , distance develops in their relationship.

Nathanael returns to studies and soon is struck by Olimpia’s beauty. Spalanzani is the physic professor with whom Nathanael is studying. Spalanzani gives a grand party where Olimpia is presented in public for the first time. Olimpia who plays the harp, sings and dances, enraptures Nathanael. Her stiffness of movement and coldness of touch appears strange to many except Nathanael who dances with her and tells her of his passion for her to which Olimpia replies only “Ah and ah!”. Soon Nathanael is drawn towards Olimpia like a bee to honey and visits her repeatedly, reading her the poems and mysticism that so bored Klara. Olimpia listens to it. Eventually Nathanael determines to propose to Olimpia but when he arrives at her room, he finds Spalanzani and Coppola fighting over the body of Olimpia. Coppola, who is now revealed as Coppelius in truth, wins the struggle, and makes off with the lifeless and eyeless body. In the end of the story, Nathanael leaps over the railing to his death. The narrator concludes that Klara is seen with a kind looking man sitting before a country house with two lively boys and thus found the domestic happiness. Nathanael would never have given her.

Thus, ‘The Sandman’ and ‘Her’ both accomplish their goals of motivating their viewers and readers to struggle of protagonist and their fears. Though they do so in very different ways: While ‘The Sandman’ emphasizes the childhood trauma and its effect on our relationship, ‘Her’ uses visual threat as a way to depict a man’s relationship and how to fill the vacuum in our life. We may need automaton or robot.

Their success demonstrates the importance of diversity in storytelling. Freud draws on different element of the story, namely, “The idea of being robbed of one’s eyes” as the ‘more striking instance of uncanniness in the tale. Uncanny effects that result from instances of ‘repetition of the something’. Readers and viewers should recognize how they benefit from the variety of ways writers inspire them both visually and intellectually

Shadow Scholar (Revised)

It is said that everyone has the ability or potential to write a blockbuster novel that will ensure our fame and fortune. JK Rowling became an overnight superstar writer with ‘Harry Potter and Series’. Now Ed Dante from Philadelphia has done that and proved by writing ‘The Shadow Scholar’ that has already been scorned by the whole academic enterprise but enlighten literature loving students like the writer of this article. Ed Dante? Well, he is now the famous writer of the book ‘The Shadow Scholar’.

Now, this is not a chilly novel one reads shivering in a cold winter night with a cup of strong coffee rather it is a serious work of a struggling writer who at least has been honest to himself and to his profession as a ghost writer.

Ed Dante is the pseudonym of Dave Tomar, a graduate of Rutgers now a freelancer writer living in Philadelphia. The writer ignited controversy in the academic community, when his article ‘The Shadow Scholar’ appeared in the Chronicle review section of the Chronicle of Higher education. The article detailed the writer’s experiences as a ghostwriter paid to help students cheat at every level of formal education. The writer claims to have assisted college, graduate and doctoral students by accepting money in exchange for writing their assignments over the course of a decade. The Shadow Scholar was met with extensive debate amongst students, educators, and parents. It became the most popularly commented on article in the Chronicle Review’s history and brought wider attention to issues relating to student cheating, plagiarism, and academic integrity.

Mr. Dante describes himself, as “I am a hired gun, a doctor of everything, an academic mercenary.”

Mr. Dante’s honest but self-aggrandizing introduction of himself seems like someone who is also a whistle blower-someone who has probably earned more as a whistle blower than as a ghostwriter. No wonders, on ABC world news his voice and face were concealed. He is honest about his work as ghostwriter, no doubt about it, but why should he conceal his identity? If he is ‘a doctor of everything’ or ‘an academic mercenary’ that he should be ‘seen’ and ‘heard’ more Millions of students worldwide can probably take online creative writing course from him.

However, as an honest whistle blower, Mr. Dante’s has shown us the dark side of education system by working for an online company that earns thousands of dollars by creating original essays provided by cheating students. Now this is a bad news for many hardworking and honest students including myself that a few of my classmates have their assignment work written by ghostwriters like Mr. Dante.

He describes his skills by saying “I’ve written 5000 pages of scholarly Literature on tight deadlines”.

This makes us conclude two points. First, Mr. Dante should probably have pursued a qualification in creative writing or as a Professor at Harvard University. Secondly, by helping these students, he is just pushing the grades standards bar even higher. Professor will expect a lot more from students, and not everyone can meet those standards. This will result in even more desperate students who probably would want Ghost Writers like Mr. Dante’s assistance.

Also, I want the author (Mr. Dante), a person who proudly admits to lying to his clients about his qualifications, not to undermine the whole academic enterprise. Such malice not only brings the whole education system in poor light but also demotivates dedicated students including myself. However, this brings to attention-how the colleges are going to find out? Proving that a student purchased a paper out of desperation or incompetency rather than created it themselves would be nearly impossible to prove, and certainly frowned upon by administration unless there was concrete proof. Moreover, both colleges and students would waste their valuable time by trying, to prove who wrote what and by whom’.

Ed Dante probably out of desperation or recession was forced to take profession of ghostwriter. A desperate person would only choose a dishonest profession like this. I know this is good for business; but what integrity in education system is he trying to expose? If he has so much integrity, why doesn’t he do volunteer service and teach free-on-line creative writing to the English-as-a second language students to the hopelessly deficient students or lazy rich kid? But Mr. Dante would not do such service because he seems more desperate and miserable than the students he is helping with. This is the classic case of the phrase “The pot calling the kettle black.”

At least, college and university professors have integrity in them by making an honest living by teaching students unlike Mr. Dante who as a ghostwriter is earning money ($$$) by cheating. This seems outrageous, illogical and impragmatic! Academia should tighten their seat belts and scrutinize the loopholes that has caused. Ed Dante and other ghost writer to take advantage of creative writing should be made compulsory irrespective of the field of study, Perhaps, academic will. One day consider writing to be a necessary, if not pre requisite, skill. Writing is a huge necessity in academic and professional world, but the course that are supposed to teach it are often viewed as little more than necessary evils but Mr. Dante rightly points that skills are more important than grading to be achieved. Especially for international students for whom English is a second language, writing articles and essays for assignment can be a pain in the neck.

You can’t fail someone for not being able to summarize the work that they have written. Many software engineering students especially those with English as a second language fail for not being able to explain how their code work! He wonders ‘why students cheat in the first place’. Indeed, both parents and academia are to be blamed when ghostwriters like Ed Dante not only earn good salary but also achieve their 15minute of fame. Instead of being as cynical and pessimist as Ed Dante has become of today’s education system, let all the readers, students, parents, and academicians join hand together and strengthen the education system by being honest to our work.

As Francis Bacon said years ago ‘Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man.’

Shadow Scholar (Revised)

It is said that everyone has the ability or potential to write a blockbuster novel that will ensure our fame and fortune. JK Rowling became an overnight superstar writer with ‘Harry Potter and Series’. Now Ed Dante from Philadelphia has done that and proved by writing ‘The Shadow Scholar’ that has already been scorned by the whole academic enterprise but enlighten literature loving students like the writer of this article. Ed Dante? Well, he is now the famous writer of the book ‘The Shadow Scholar’.

Now, this is not a chilly novel one reads shivering in a cold winter night with a cup of strong coffee rather it is a serious work of a struggling writer who at least has been honest to himself and to his profession as a ghost writer.

Ed Dante is the pseudonym of Dave Tomar, a graduate of Rutgers now a freelancer writer living in Philadelphia. The writer ignited controversy in the academic community, when his article ‘The Shadow Scholar’ appeared in the Chronicle review section of the Chronicle of Higher education. The article detailed the writer’s experiences as a ghostwriter paid to help students cheat at every level of formal education. The writer claims to have assisted college, graduate and doctoral students by accepting money in exchange for writing their assignments over the course of a decade. The Shadow Scholar was met with extensive debate amongst students, educators, and parents. It became the most popularly commented on article in the Chronicle Review’s history and brought wider attention to issues relating to student cheating, plagiarism, and academic integrity.

Mr. Dante describes himself, as “I am a hired gun, a doctor of everything, an academic mercenary.”

Mr. Dante’s honest but self-aggrandizing introduction of himself seems like someone who is also a whistle blower-someone who has probably earned more as a whistle blower than as a ghostwriter. No wonders, on ABC world news his voice and face were concealed. He is honest about his work as ghostwriter, no doubt about it, but why should he conceal his identity? If he is ‘a doctor of everything’ or ‘an academic mercenary’ that he should be ‘seen’ and ‘heard’ more Millions of students worldwide can probably take online creative writing course from him.

However, as an honest whistle blower, Mr. Dante’s has shown us the dark side of education system by working for an online company that earns thousands of dollars by creating original essays provided by cheating students. Now this is a bad news for many hardworking and honest students including myself that a few of my classmates have their assignment work written by ghostwriters like Mr. Dante.

He describes his skills by saying “I’ve written 5000 pages of scholarly Literature on tight deadlines”.

This makes us conclude two points. First, Mr. Dante should probably have pursued a qualification in creative writing or as a Professor at Harvard University. Secondly, by helping these students, he is just pushing the grades standards bar even higher. Professor will expect a lot more from students, and not everyone can meet those standards. This will result in even more desperate students who probably would want Ghost Writers like Mr. Dante’s assistance.

Also, I want the author (Mr. Dante), a person who proudly admits to lying to his clients about his qualifications, not to undermine the whole academic enterprise. Such malice not only brings the whole education system in poor light but also demotivates dedicated students including myself. However, this brings to attention-how the colleges are going to find out? Proving that a student purchased a paper out of desperation or incompetency rather than created it themselves would be nearly impossible to prove, and certainly frowned upon by administration unless there was concrete proof. Moreover, both colleges and students would waste their valuable time by trying, to prove who wrote what and by whom’.

Ed Dante probably out of desperation or recession was forced to take profession of ghostwriter. A desperate person would only choose a dishonest profession like this. I know this is good for business; but what integrity in education system is he trying to expose? If he has so much integrity, why doesn’t he do volunteer service and teach free-on-line creative writing to the English-as-a second language students to the hopelessly deficient students or lazy rich kid? But Mr. Dante would not do such service because he seems more desperate and miserable than the students he is helping with. This is the classic case of the phrase “The pot calling the kettle black.”

At least, college and university professors have integrity in them by making an honest living by teaching students unlike Mr. Dante who as a ghostwriter is earning money ($$$) by cheating. This seems outrageous, illogical and impragmatic! Academia should tighten their seat belts and scrutinize the loopholes that has caused. Ed Dante and other ghost writer to take advantage of creative writing should be made compulsory irrespective of the field of study, Perhaps, academic will. One day consider writing to be a necessary, if not pre requisite, skill. Writing is a huge necessity in academic and professional world, but the course that are supposed to teach it are often viewed as little more than necessary evils but Mr. Dante rightly points that skills are more important than grading to be achieved. Especially for international students for whom English is a second language, writing articles and essays for assignment can be a pain in the neck.

You can’t fail someone for not being able to summarize the work that they have written. Many software engineering students especially those with English as a second language fail for not being able to explain how their code work! He wonders ‘why students cheat in the first place’. Indeed, both parents and academia are to be blamed when ghostwriters like Ed Dante not only earn good salary but also achieve their 15minute of fame. Instead of being as cynical and pessimist as Ed Dante has become of today’s education system, let all the readers, students, parents, and academicians join hand together and strengthen the education system by being honest to our work.

As Francis Bacon said years ago ‘Reading maketh a full man; conference a ready man; and writing an exact man.’