Immigration Issue Discussion

Our school, Emory University, emphasizes diversity. International students from different countries fly to America to bring distinct thoughts to the Emory community. What I want the class to read is an article. It is from New York Times titled “U.S. Immigration Laws Face New Scrutiny After Killings.” These days top issue that floats around the world is an immigration issue in U.S. Immigration issues were continuously debatable since the nineteenth century. There were several acts passed by the federal state such as “Chinese Exclusion Acts.” U.S. government was concerned about U.S. workers’ jobs exponentially losing and the unstable economy.

Students in English Expository class are also diversified. This article will be suitable and appropriate to discuss in class. First of all, to give an introduction of this article, the Republicans oppose against Obama administration that supports and tries to help illegal immigrants in America. To get to the point of this article, an immigrant who was deported twice killed two sheriff’s officers in Los Angeles.

The illegal immigrant was deported because of drug and weapon issues. Moreover, the fact that this immigrant was deported twice reflects the government that they do not enforce law strong enough to prevent these situations. There was also a couple and a boyfriend who was an illegal immigrant got help from his girlfriend to stay in America secretly. When someone reported that the couple was drug dealing, the couple shot Sacramento deputy and ran away.

In class, we can discuss how the federal and state government should act differently to enforce immigration laws efficiently? Do you want the immigrants to stay in America or not? What should the seventh largest immigrants in State of Georgia act upon against illegal immigrants?

These kinds of discussions might raise disputation between the international students and U.S. students but it will also be a key to resolving the misconceptions both sides have. To be honest, Emory should have no rights to brag about their diversity. There was some racist occurrence in the Emory community and gave disappointment to the students. Also there is a barrier between International student’s side and U.S. student’s side that both sides of the students cannot get close to each other. Having these kind of discussions will have a high possibility to break the barrier and students will converge together.

After discussion, there will be a lot of diversified groups working and socializing in the cafeteria, library, cafe, and other public places. This way will make Emory community the true “International Community” with no doubt about it. Some students might not agree with immigrants staying in the U.S. but the whole point about this discussion is to at least try to influence and convince those who oppose. This discussion will not only enhance the disputation on immigration issue but also increase skills of compromise and understanding other side’s perception.


While doing laundry one day, I imagined what was life before the washing machine. Just out of curiosity I checked the true date the washing machine came into existence and was surprised by the result. Though I didn’t get one particular date I did come across several advertisements related to the washing machine printed in nearly ancient times and I chose to do my historical advertisement paper on the washing machine.

The first advertisement that I came across belonged to a company called P. Mallory & Co. that had invented the automatic timer switch for the washing machine. At first I was kind of confused by looking at that advertisement because I did not see the requirement of an image of a Bombardier Jet, which was used during the war. It however piqued my interest and I continued to read the entire text. The advertisement stated that the automatic time switch was also used as a part on the Bombardier Jet and the advertisement was to declare that this switch would now be used only in washing machines, now that the war had gotten over. This advertisement shows that the main beneficiaries of adding this switch to the washing machine would be the housewives who were sick and tired of doing their laundry by hand.

The second advertisement is a black and white advertisement. The billboard with this advertisement appeared in 1946. This advertisement included all the functions of the washing machine including rinsing, drying and washing at the touch of a button. It targets the housewives. The ad shows a little girl peering which shows that handling the washing machine was easy and doable by even children of that age and you didn’t need someone with expertise and rough hands to work it or do the laundry. This advertisement shows the washing machine in the shape, form and size similar to what exists today.

The video advertisement I saw was one by whirlpool in 1956. The advertisement was childish and immature showing two puppets talking to an old woman. The advertisement showed that in those days there weren’t too many machines that were capable of being used as a washing machine or as a machine to reduce effort while doing laundry. In the advertisement while one puppet argues that there is no machine that she can use to ease her effort the other puppet brings out the whirlpool machine on her request showing to the audience and the viewers that on the contrary there existed such a machine in the market.

The fourth and the last advertisement that I found is probably the oldest piece of paper that I have ever come across which means the ad was even before World War 1 and before the time of Gandhi in the year 1869. The advertisement is on yellow paper, which once may have been white and shows a very dignified house lady in a very British attire standing beside the machine, turning the handle. The machine itself is just a huge barrel with a kind of device looking like a sewing machine attached to the top. The tagline states ‘Celebrated Home Washer’ because in those days there never existed multiple companies manufacturing a single product and even if there did, there was always one who enjoyed the monopoly and the company that released this ad was one of them. Now if we see the date this ad was released we can deduce that before this there existed no such pre cursor for the benefit of woman and house ladies doing laundry.

This advertisement when compared to the second advertisement released by Bendix shows a complete transformation and evolution of the washing machine in over ninety years. The latter of the two advertisements shows and depicts a picture of the machine closer home because the shape, the size and even the look of it is similar and somewhat exactly the same to the modern day machine we use at home or in the Laundromat.

Researching these advertisements on washing machines makes me appreciate the ones we have in our dorm because before the first washing machine in the 1860’s I don’t think there existed such a device and my efforts would have been multiplied to no limit. As it has happened with all gadgets and machines, with time they have evolved into something that has made the daily lives of the human race easier than ever before. Washing machines being such an integral part of every household has caused the competition to grow leading to more and more commercial advertisements over the years.

Works Cited

Advertisement 1:

Mallory “Out of the Washing Machine Into the Superforts” R0731. Advertisement. 1945. Duke U. Rare Book and ManuscriptLib. Ad*Access. Web. 1 Dec 2014

Advertisement 2:

Bendix “Bendix Automatic Home Laundry – washes – rinses – damp – drys All Automatic!” BBB5319. Advertisement. 1946. Duke U. Rare Book and ManuscriptLib. Ad*Access. Web. 1 Dec 2014

Advertisement 3:

Whirlpool “1956 Commercial For Whirlpool Washing Machine”. Advertisement.1956. Television.

Advertisement 4:

Home Manufacturing Company “Descriptions, Testimonials and Directions of the Celebrated Home Washer”A0478. Advertisement. Ca.1869. Duke U. Rare Book and ManuscriptLib. Ad*Access. Web. 1 Dec 2014

Historical Telescope Advertisements Evaluation

The telescope is by no means a new invention. In fact, the telescope has been around since the mid-1600s. However, only since World War II have telescopes been more widely advertised for the amateur or common individual. Many such advertisements appeared in popular science and astronomy magazines, such as Sky and Telescope. Major telescope companies of the time included Sky Scope and, in later years, Criterion and Palomar Jr. The differences and similarities amongst advertisements for these companies reflect the how consumer and intellectual values stayed the same and changed over time.

One of the first telescope advertisements for the amateur appearing following World War II was published by Sky Scope. In the advertisement, Sky Scope markets its three and one-half inch Astronomical Telescope. The advertisement is without a picture of its product and the advertisement is in black and white. Nonetheless, the size and type of font used in the advertisement varies throughout the page in order to draw attention to certain details. Major details, such as the name of the company, the price, and the product features, are in bold and are in a larger font than the rest of the advertisement. In contrast, contact information is not in bold print and information regarding how to learn more about Sky Scope’s products is in bold.

Sky Scope’s advertisement also establishes ethos, logos, and pathos. Ethos is established by the contact information and company name in addition to the phrase. Information regarding product details and the price are the foundation for logos of the advertisement. Furthermore, phrases like “amateurs everywhere are talking about” and “we invite you” lend pathos to the advertisement in that the one statement appeals to consumers desire to keep up with what is popular and the other statement establishes an amicable relationship between consumers and the company. Thus, the advertisement would have been influential probably for young adults and older due to its lack of visual appeal but straightforwardness and effective usage of rhetoric.

A few social implications can also be drawn from this advertisement. For instance, the price of the telescope is only $25. A small price compared to the price of telescopes for amateurs today and products in general. Therefore, it may be reasonably concluded inflation has increased in the United States since World War II. It may also be assumed that the period after World War II was a time of propriety and efficiency in that the advertisement does not dally but gets straight to the details of the product and even mentions that one may request “a brochure describing in a straightforward manner the instrument’s amazing performance.”

Advertisements for Criterion and Co.’s Dynascope first appeared in 1954. Dynascope was marketed as the first professional four inch telescope. The advertisement does is supported by a picture of the product. Similarly to the Sky Scope advertisement, the advertisement is in black and white, and the text is represented in varying sizes and type of print in relation to its level of significance. Ethos is imparted by the company’s name, description, and contact information. The advertisement largely draws upon the picture of the product to establish logos by using numbers and a legend of the numbers to list product features. The price of the product is another example of logos. For the most part, the advertisement utilizes pathos to appeal to consumers. For example, the product is introduced as “At last! A Complete Professional Telescope for Amateur Astronomers,” appealing to consumers’ interest in novelty as well as to show enthusiasm for the product. Other features of the product and the price of the product are also described with phrases such as “unheard of” and “you won’t believe” in the further interest of pathos in the advertisement. The overall message of the pathos is that you will have the best telescope around for the best price if you buy this telescope; that is, you will be on top of the amateur astronomer community.

There are three major social implications I infer from this advertisement. In the same way as Sky Scope emphasized the low price of its product, Criterion and Co. emphasizes the low price of its product. Thus, it may be inferred individuals are still keen about a tight budget as even more years pass since World War II. Additionally, the advertisement stresses its product as being pristine and of a high quality in addition to being a professional instrument. This seems to appeal to the beginning of the consumer age in the 1950s where consumers’ value of propriety seemed to shift to having the latest and greatest. The advertisement also suggest the individual could not fabricate so elaborate and inexpensive a product, which appears to point to the belief of the consumer age that companies can make products better and are convenient.

This advertisement is effective in promoting its product for the most part. However, one major flaw with this advertisement is the section, which consists of a few paragraphs, that lends the most pathos to the advertisement is in such small print it is difficult to read, especially for individuals with vision impairment. Additionally, the advertisement seems to target an audience more familiar with the structure and mechanisms of the telescope as the advertisement highlights key features and minute details of the product. That is, a more general audience may not understand these terms and the consequent benefits of these features on the product.

In competition with Criterion and Co.’s Dynascope, Edmund came out with the Palomar, Jr., in the same year. Similarly to the other two advertisements, this advertisement is in black and white and the name of the product and the price are in bold print and larger font than the rest of the advertisement. The remainder of the advertisement is a paragraph not in bold print primarily detailing the features of the product. Thus, the majority of the advertisement—the paragraph and name and price of the product—are the basis of the logos of the advertisement. In regards to ethos, the advertisement lists the stock number and location of the company. This advertisement also incorporates pathos in a few different one ways. One way the advertisement is by stating that the product is “designed by us to meet the need of every astronomer!” Such an appeal is used to suggest the company cares about the consumer, their needs, and what is best for them. Another appeal to pathos is the bold print, large type font caption “A Real Reflector Telescope.” What this caption appears to suggest is that the company’s competitors are imposters or that other companies telescopes are not as authentic as Edmunds. That is why you need the Palomar, Jr.

Overall, the same social implications can be inferred from this advertisement as the Sky Scope advertisement, and the same difficulties with its use as an effective medium of advertising as the Dynascope. The only exception is that this telescope is the most expensive at $74.50, but this greater cost can be assumed to be a consequence of the more complex and improved features of the Palomar, Jr.

Conclusively, these advertisements speak to consumers of a different time. These were consumers that were reluctant to purchase luxuries and kept their budgets tight in the aftermath of World War II. However, these consumers were also players in the rise of consumerism. Moreover, these advertisements catered to the individual’s interest in the world beyond and desire for knowledge, especially at this time of increasing scientific advances.

Works Cited

Hill, Richard. A Myopic View of the History of Criterion MFG. CO. Department of Planetary Sciences, The University of Arizona, n.d. Web 23 Nov. 2014.

Historical Advertising Blog (Beer)

Most people in the modern era relate beer to being manly, with thousands of male college students belligerently beer drinking to create memorable nights that they most likely won’t remember. This thought of manly beer comes from advertising. Dos Equis advertises their beer by the means of an older gentleman drinking their product while being surrounded by beautiful girls, definitely not directed towards the female population. While Budweiser and other American beer companies advertise their product with young attractive girls, dressed rather scantily, posing in front of a beer or next to a man drinking a beer, very seldom is one of the women actually shown drinking or holding a beer can/bottle. These companies specifically target men, since they are considered the usual drinkers of beer. However, before the 1980s beer was advertised differently, with less of an emphasis on “manly”.

The first advertisement is of Carling Beer. It is a large picture attached to the side of a trailer. The ad itself is rather simple, with only three objects and three words. The three objects are a glass full of beer, a beer bottle with the Carling label on it, and a plate with spaghetti on it. The three words are “people like it”. The creator of this ad purposefully made it simple. The idea is that the average person simply enjoys the beer with their meal. There is nothing complicated about having the beer with your dinner. Also the Carling label on the beer is centered directly in the middle of the poster. People’s eyes are drawn toward it, allowing the viewer to immediately comprehend the product and the producer. The words, “people like it” is located to the right of the beer can in plain white letters. The phrase emphasizes the enjoyment of drinking Carling beer, the same way people enjoy eating spaghetti. Overall, the ad is meant to be simple with the idea that beer is meant to be enjoyed; it doesn’t need any complex material to enhance the flavor. This is rather different from modern commercials, nowadays many beer companies are trying to come up with complex bottles or flavors that are suppose to improve the experience of drinking beer. For example, the vortex bottle from Miller Lite, which states their bottle produces a smoother flow of beer from the vortex in the bottle. It seems to me, that the simplistic style is more effective technique and would appeal more to the common man.

The next ad is for Budweiser beer. It’s a large poster showing two women sitting across from each other enjoying Budweiser. This is very different from modern beer commercials because it is advertising directed towards women. The two women look as if they are having a very pleasant time and a deep in conversation. There is a caption above the two women which says, “Something to talk about” which makes the viewer assume that the two ladies are discussing the beer that they are enjoying. At the bottom of the page is the dominant feature of the poster, which is a caption that states, “Budweiser everywhere.” The main purpose of the poster is to show the two ladies enjoying themselves while drinking Budweiser. In return, the viewer assumes that drinking Budweiser leads to a pleasant conversation starter and provides for a good time. This is an appeal to pathos, since it is trying to draw upon the emotions of the viewer. It also appeals to logos in the fact that the Budweiser brand name is the dominant feature of the poster, allowing the viewer to instantly determine the brand of beer.

The last ad is for Coors Beer. Much like the modern Coors commercials, this ad focuses on the quality of the beer. Both the modern and past ads tend to emphasize the fact that their beer is brewed with “pure rocky mountain spring water”. This statement is right beside a picture of a picturesque nature scene, making the beer seem fresh and of high quality. Once again, the main focus of the poster is the title of the company. This logo is very prevalent in many advertisements, since it allows the viewer to quickly identify the company. The poster appeals to ethos, but instead of trying to elicit an emotion, the creator of this ad is trying to display to the viewer that Coors knows how to best produce beer in a natural way. This is shown by the statement of brewed with pure rocky mountain spring water and the picture of nature in the background, making it seem as if the producers at Coors have found the right formula to create the finest beer. There also is a statement underneath the Coors title, which states, “America’s fine light beer.” By not saying finest, Coors isn’t technically lying to the viewers, but still makes it seem as if Coors has the best beer in America. This is just another reference to their ethos appeal and how they know how to create the finest beer, making the viewer more likely to purchase Coors beer.

For beer advertising, the audience that companies are trying to appeal to has changed over time. In the modern era, beer companies usually generate advertisements geared toward the younger male population, showing pictures of young men drinking beer surrounded by young beautiful women. Before the 1980s beer advertisements was directed toward a broader audience. Some ads tried to simplify beer, stating that it was just an enjoyable product much like spaghetti which anyone could enjoy during a meal. Others tried to advertise toward women, showing pictures of women enjoying beer while engaging in pleasant conversation. Some would even focus on the superiority of their product by showing the quality of their ingredients, such as pure rocky mountain spring water. And in all of the past advertisements, it is demonstrated as a mild enjoyable drink rather than a wild party drink, which is what most advertisements nowadays try to express with their ads.

Works Cited

Budweiser. “Something to Talk About–Budweiser Everywhere” [AAA6498]. Advertisement. 22 July 1934. Duke U. Rare Book and Manuscript Lib. Web. 1 Dec. 2014.

Carling Beer. “People Like It” [AAA9828]. Advertisement. 1960. Duke U. Rare Book and Manuscript Lib. AdViews. Web. 1 Dec. 2014.

Coors. “Brewed With Pure Rocky Mountain Spring Water” [AAA9940]. Advertisement. 1960. Duke U. Rare Book and Manuscript Lib. AdViews. Web. 1 Dec. 2014.

Historical Advertising: Viagra

So much work was put into a product: what the goal is, how to go about achieving the said goal, how the product looks, the packaging, and even the product name. Now the perfect product is done, ready to hit the shelves- but how do people find out about it? Advertisement.

The key part of any product of advertisement, for it can make or break a good. Some products are terrible, but the advertising is done so well that people end up buying it. On the other hand, some products are perfect. In fact, way too perfect that the producers feel overly confident about their product that they find it no reason to advertise it, yet people have no idea that the good is in the market that it ends up not selling. A producer needs to find a good measure of advertisement to make their product really flourish.

Researching online, three distinct Viagra advertisements popped out from the rest. They each have a unique quality that differentiates them from regular ads, and that is their biggest selling point. Viagra isn’t a regular drug, its somewhat awkward to talk about openly, so the advertisements for it must combat this awkwardness, and they do it well.

First there is an billboard ad from Viagra that came out in 2000, just 5 years after the drug hit the market. This ad is interesting for it doesn’t try to sell you the product, it just congratulates BET for changing the world, and claims that they also think that “change is good.” This is interesting because it is less than an advertisement and more of a response to the natural controversy that the drug arouses. It speaks to the audience, those who are on the fence or scared to try the drug. It shows them that change is not something to fear, rather something to congratulate about. It calls on pathos, for the audience also wants to be congratulated for taking part of “change”, just like BET was.

Following that, there is the simple advertisement from 1999 found in magazines. The ad showcases big, gold letters in simple font, against a black background, that reads, “Hey, who needs Viagra…” This artwork is simple and ambiguous, and that’s why it’s so effective. It audience is immense. By not limiting the advertisement to a demographic, socioeconomic level, age, or gender, it appeals to almost everyone. Also, the language used is very personal. It can be felt as if it’s one of your friends offering something.

The next advertisement is different for its a TV commercial called Cuddle Up that came out earlier this year. It’s more contemporary than the others, but it sets itself apart from all other Viagra commercials. It features a woman. Yes, a woman. Usually the norm of Viagra commercials are middle-aged to older men in a very rustic setting doing manly things. However, this is a fairly young (or at least young looking) woman lying in bed and touching up her hair and makeup. She talks directly to the audience as if she is telling us a secret. This shoots up pathos through the roof, for it makes the audience feel connect to this woman, makes them feel as if they’re friends gossiping about something. The audience for this is mostly woman, which is a innovative move on Viagra’s part. Men can also be considered an audience for this commercial since she is a pretty woman, but it’s made mostly for women.

These three advertisements are all unique and stand out, but they each lack something essential. The first ad, with congratulation to BET, it doesn’t advertise the actual product at all. If the audience had no idea what Viagra was, they wouldn’t be able to tell what the product is, much less what it does. This undermines the logos of the advertisement, for it is not advertising anything concrete. It’s like an inside joke, only people that have some sort of background knowledge know that they’re talking about. The simple, bold advertisement suffers from the same fatal flaw. There is no ‘so what’? These ads are so open ended and ambiguous that almost anything can be inferred from them. Lastly, the woman commercial seems effective, for she is straight, to the point, and informative. However, just showing a person getting ready to go out doesn’t gather that much ethos. It would be more effective if it also showcased some scientists in lab coats working on the “little blue pill”.

Overall Viagra does a decent jobs with its advertisements and its products. There are many other pills that do the same thing, such as Wildman-X, Extendor, Lightning Rod, Betterman, Erectinol, Cockstar, Horny Goat Weed, and many, many more. However, Viagra has such a dominance over the market that most people don’t even know that the pill isn’t called Viagra, that’s the company’s name. There are some improvements to make on the advertisement of Viagra, but the company is doing a very well as it is.

Works Cited

“THE VIAGRA TEAM.” Billboard (Archive: 1963-2000) Apr 22 2000ProQuest. Web. 29 Nov. 2014 .

“Hey, Who Needs Viagra..” Broadcasting & Cable (Archive: 1993-2000) Oct 18 1999: 0-0_2. ProQuest. Web. 29 Nov. 2014 .

Viagra. “Cuddle Up”. Advertisement. 12 Apr. 2012. Television.

Historical Advertising Study


First ad:

Second ad:

Third ad:

For my object, computer, I found three ads on Duke University Collections. I would like to firstly analyze the advertisements separately and then compare them to one another.

As far as I am concerned, in order to analyze an advertisement, it’s significant to consider the circumstance in which this ad is used. For the first image, the tall and giant ad board usually appears on sides of freeways. In the image there’s an innocent-looking baby with his hand on the keyboard of an Apple IIc. Next to the computer is its box with a colorful image on it, which at first sight appears to be some kind of Lego toys. And on the left of the image writes “The Present For His Future”. For me this image is creepy because I grow up witnessing kids messing with toy bricks and dolls. And this picture generates a weird implication that a newly born baby understands how to operate a computer. But the picture is actually prophetic for that time, considering the fact that a large number of kids nowadays are obsessed with ipad games. As for the target customers, I think this advertisement focuses on attracting middle-aged parents and little kids themselves. And it’s a good idea to set this board on freeways because a big proportion of drivers are middle-aged people, and thus the company would very likely receive attention from most of its target audiences. Furthermore, if those parents’ kids happen to be in the car and see the image in which someone at their ages play computer, they would probably demand one for themselves. And since the product is Apple IIc, I assume the target customers are at least of middle class and possess passion for novel technologies. As for the logos, there’s no obvious visual hierarchy path for this ad because the sentence and the image each occupies approximately equal space. However, the red color of the characters on the left might attract people at first (in this case parents instead of kids), and since parents care about their children’s future, they would move their eyes to the right and observe the image. But the color red does nothing to kids because they are naturally more curious about pictures, and hence children might look directly at the image. The most successful element of this ad is its pathos. It arouses resonance among its target audiences by relating computers to babies. The background color blue communicates a sense of future.

In the second image there exists a visual hierarchy path. The picture enlarges from left to right, directing people’s attention to the teenage girl studying in front of the computer, which might seem novel back in 1985, and thus causing curious people to move their sights to the words on the left, which explains that computers should be introduced into school educational system. Though nowadays computers are everywhere in schools and the one in the ad appears to be even outdated, it’s not difficult to imagine that computers were hardly seen in schools back then. And I assume that the target customers of this ad is people related to education, including students, professors, school faculties, experts of education, etc. The highlight of this ad is comparing computers to the ‘new kid’ in schools, which is accurate and creative. But I think this ad will be more appealing if the company converts the picture into another one that explicitly shows the advantage of having computers in schools. To achieve this goal, it will be better to show teenagers’ smiling faces and the amazing things they are able to do with computer, such as watching online presentations, doing online researches, etc.

The third ad, like the first one, also exploits large ad board on freeways. But it also differs from the previous ones in that it focuses more on information (words) instead of attraction (emphasizing on images). This is confirmed by its visual hierarchy, which leads people directly to the characters. Also the small picture in the ad seems random and does not show explicit connection to the words. For the logos of this advertisement, I agree with its distribution of space for image and words, because the essential goal of this company is to provide detailed information to customers who are interested. But it will be better to delete the picture or replace it by another one. At present the picture serves no purpose but to disturb attention, and thus if the company insists on inserting an image, it should select one that is more interesting and more related to the text section.

From a more holistic viewpoint, these three ads share some common denominators, but also differ from one another. Each of these three ads targets a certain customer base and is designed to attract that crowd to the maximum possible extent. Companies distribute these ads’ pictures and characters according to their needs. The first two ads emphasize more on pictures comparing to the third one, but they use different approaches to achieve this goal. The first one exploits color contrast, while the second one uses enlargement. Also the first two ads are concerned with younger populations. On the other hand, while the last two ads give different apportion of space to their pictures and words, the first ad distribute the two elements evenly. And while the first ad does a great job on choosing the picture, the last two ads need to select their images more prudently.

Finally, imagining that I know nothing about that time period and could only infer basing on these three ads: Looking at the rather old-fashioned styles of computers that appear on the ads and people’s attitudes toward it, I could conjecture that at that time computers were not widely used in daily lives and people were just beginning to embrace the invention of some advanced computers. Additionally, since Apple IIc shows up on one of the ads, it might had already been a while since computers were first introduced to the society. So presumably during those years most people had basic knowledge about computers. And as relative technology was updating rapidly, some people were aware of the valuable potential of computers, and they hoped that by introducing computers into ordinary families and schools, the human society would receive even more benefits. Furthermore, these advertisements reveal that some companies had already perceived optimistic business opportunities of promoting and selling computers.

Work Cited List

  1. Foster&Kleiser. [The Present For His Future]. Advertisement. 1985. Duke University Collections. Web. 30 Nov. 2014
  2. [Jefferson Country Education Needs the New Kid in School]. Advertisement. 1985. Duke University Collections. Web. 30 Nov. 2014
  3. Foster&Kleiser. [Computer Power; Computerland for Business, Home and Education]. Advertisement. 1980. Duke University Collections. Web. 30. Nov. 2014

Refrigerator Historical Ad Analysis

The refrigerator, in one form or another, has been around for a long time. Originally it was simply an ice box, and food was kept cold only by the ice that it was physically near or on. Scientific advances made more efficient refrigeration possible, culminating in the modern refrigerator. From our modern point of view, this looks like sort of a no-brainer. Given all we know about the refrigerator now, everyone knows its something you have just got to own. But back when it was relatively new, innovative technology, the question of how to market it still remained.

This ad is from the Outdoor Advertising Association of America (OAAA) collection, dated between 1934 and 1941.

In this first advertisement, it might initially be hard to see what’s important. There’s a penguin, which is clearly there so the consumer will associate this specific brand of refrigerator with cold, but that’s nothing groundbreaking, or even marginally interesting really. The ad also mentions the pricing of the refrigerator and the “easy terms,” but again, that’s pretty standard in most advertising. The only thing that’s left is the phrase “In a million homes.” And in this already simple phrase, there’s one key word that stands out and makes clear who the target audience is: homes. This refrigerator is for your home. It’s not marketed as being in a million houses, owned by a million individuals, or having sold a million of them. Home is a word that makes everyone feel comfortable, and it brings up images of home cooked food and family, which is the important thing that the word home appeals to. This refrigerator ad is subtly saying that it won’t just be a part of your house, but also your home and even your family.

Again from the OAAA, this ad is undated. Based on the drawing style of Blondie and Dagwood, it seems to be more recent (much closer to 1990 than 1930), but no specific date is given.

This second advertisement depicts two iconic cartoon characters: Dagwood and Blondie from the comic strip and film series Blondie, created by Chic Young back in 1930. Interestingly, Dagwood and Blondie started out as wealthy boyfriend and girlfriend, but during the Great Depression, they lost their money and got married to make the strip more relatable. Since then, they have been seen as the iconic married couple living in the suburbs with their children. And who better to advertise a refrigerator? Just as with the last ad, this is designed to appeal to a sense of home and family, because in the end, that’s really who buys a refrigerator. Single people certainly buy refrigerators, but so do newly married couples looking to start a home and a family. Dagwood and Blondie represent a comfortable, happy home, and so are perfect for a refrigerator ad.

This ad is listed (again undated) in the OAAA collection from 1885-1990, but based on the woman’s hair, 1950-1960 seems like a good range.

In this final ad, much like the first ad, it’s not immediately apparent what’s relevant and interesting. The text makes clear the advantages of the particular refrigerator: it brings ice right to you! But again, the question is who this is being marketed to. The answer seems to be women like the woman in the picture, but who is she exactly? She appears to be young and attractive, she has a modern (for the time) look, and upon close inspection, she is wearing a ring. She’s married! That’s hugely important, because once again, this is appealing to the married home. It also appeals to each individual member of the home. Men would see this ad and think that owning that refrigerator would somehow get him a beautiful girl like that. And women looking at the ad would think that owning that refrigerator would make them young, beautiful, and modern. This is a slight variation from the previous advertisements that seemed to appeal to the family and home as a whole, but it is still quite effective and appeals to the same group, but in a slightly different way.

Between all three of these ads, one thing really remains the same: the appeal to the family. It seems that since its early days up to more modern ads, refrigerator ads have been targeted towards homes and families. This seems to indicate that it works, and that the people buying refrigerators really are people who buy into these ads, or in other words, are part of the home and / or family depicted or hinted at in these ads.

Works Cited

Gold Seal Coldspot Refrigerators in a Million Homes <;.

End Defrosting Forever With a No-Frost Modern Refrigerator. <;.

New Side-by-Side Refrigerator. General Electric delivers ice to your door! <;.

Historical Ad

When I started to choose my historical object, I was walking around the kitchen. Among all those modern and fancy-designed kitchen appliances, refrigerator is the one entering my mind because the evolution of refrigerator is a long epic from the time when human understand the principles of refrigeration to the wide adoption of mechanical refrigeration in the processing, shipping and storing of perishable commodities nowadays. This article is going to present three different old ads from Frigidaire, one of the world’s oldest and most famous refrigerator brand. Back in 1918, Frigidaire began its mass production of electric refrigerators as electricity became available to urban household. By 1930s, the brand name “Frigidaire” was synonymous with refrigerator.
Since the 1920s, America witnessed the fast growing and mass produced advertising expenditures of modern companies. Along with the spread of new media-radio, television and commercial messages, advertising seems easier for company to reach out to customers. Here I will be discussing three Frigidaire ads posted on the magazine from the late 1920s.

The first advertisement was released before Christmas time. The title of the advertisement is “Give her a real thrill this Christmas!” The picture above is set in the kitchen where a father is holding his wife’s shoulder and their kid is bending down looking curious and thrilled at a huge double door refrigerator with a woodland wreaths hanging on the handle of the refrigerator in front of him. While the man is holding her wife, he put his other hand on his hip, looking proud and complacent. This gesture is suggestive of the fact that the man buys the refrigerator for his wife, and for his family’s sake. His hand gesture and facial expression accord with the title “Give her a real thrill this Christmas!”

For many Americans, they value Christmas a lot because it is one of the most joyous times of the year and it’s a family and friend reunion time. From the mind of businessman, Christmas is also a time when people flock to go shopping as if everything’s free. The advertisement producers catch hold of this holiest day of the year in people’s heart. They use “Christmas” to “trick” people into thinking that it is not unusual to buy new refrigerator on Christmas time because it is the right time to renew kitchen appliance of the year. Christmas also evokes the imaginary scene of family sitting together, sharing the most pleasant memory with the beloved one. Wouldn’t it be great to have a new refrigerator in the house where woman escalate their sense of happiness when doing dull housework? On the top of the advertisement, FRIGIDAIRE is all capitalized. Since Frigidaire at that time was already a well-known and successful brand. It applies the ethos here to invoke brand credibility of Frigidaire and at the same time build brand famous in an upper level.

Whether is by coincidence or not, the second advertisement I will be discussing also was dubbed the title “A priceless treasure in any home- Frigidaire”, with an emphasis of gift here. The housewife with an apron sitting in a wooden high bar chair while the husband is holding the ice cube tray, standing up beside his wife, to show how amazing it is for the fridge to make ice. The fridge is opening up so the inner design of the fridge is crystal clear. This description below the picture again emphases the brand name, Frigidaire Electric Refrigeration. It also presents customers the fact that “it has established new measures of convenience, cleanliness and economy.”

The last ad is a more than just picture and description. It has actual scene with ad line in it. It is in a restaurant where apparently the man and the woman are having a date. The woman goes “What MUST I do to convince you that I actually DON’T like warm lettuce” and then the man says “Well, now that you mention it again, I suggest that you either cultivate a taste for it—–or buy a Frigidaire.” The ad is pretty straightforward to show that Frigidaire is a best choice. The interesting description under the picture in which the ad demonstrates a scene where “In those less than well-regulated homes where the temperature of whatever it is ……”evokes the heart-rending scenes to make consumers to walk in other’s shoes and then generate the thought of how significant refrigerator it is in daily life.
Among all these three ads, one common thing is noticeable. Women in the ads wore more convenient clothing for activity and dressed more nicely without restriction such as corsets. They wear flappers and short glamorous dress above knee. They are typical 1920s women with short hair and necklace with long beads. According to most historians, the 1920s was a time of liberation for some women. Yet the role of woman in society wasn’t changing very fast. Certain role for woman still existed and it is noticeable in the previous two ads. Both two ads advocate the man do something handsome: buying a refrigerator to please the woman. Its assumption lying behind is women, in charge of housework, would be pleased to have some nice kitchen appliance to assist them. Women had some inextricable ties with the kitchen. They never walk out of the field of the house as if women are confined in their house. Due to woman’s relatively low social and economic status compare to that of man’s, even though the target group of consumers are woman, the ads essentially call for man to buy it because man has the economic ability to buy luxury goods.
However, we discussed how the ads present us the role of woman in society, and in the mean time they also show the improvement of overall treatments towards woman. Man is supposed to be a gentleman because woman should be taken good care of.
And they shed light on women’s changing role as modern homemaker. The ads reveal the way that what gestures man perceived to be handsome and gentleman as they reflect social norms and reinforce particular conceptions of the social order.
Advertising inadvertently produced some stereotypes about its social and ethical implications based on its historical context. Although in the 1920s, the advertising agencies were basically in the space in local newspapers and a range of magazines, the social impacts of advertising had never been weakened but increased.

Work cited
Advertisement 7 — no title. (1926, Apr 29). Life (1883-1936), 87, 29. Retrieved from

Advertisement 22 — no title. (1927, Dec 15). Life (1883-1936), 90, 36. Retrieved from

Advertisement 23 — no title. (1927, May 05). Life (1883-1936), 89, 37. Retrieved from

I, Robot

The talk I found to be most intriguing in class was the one about robots. When our professor showed us the website with all the different robots created many years ago, it left me in awe. In my mind, robots are contemporary, something even we now don’t fully grasp. Realizing that the whole concept of robotics actually came to fruiting many decades ago, it gave me a sense of perspective and made me realize how addicted we as humans are in trying to recreate life in our image. However nice it would be to create our mechanical brethren, I feel the complications of it were never discussed. Now you might be thinking, “ Yes it was! We watched Her,” but that movie is about a nonphysical being, while robots are very much physical. A complementary movie to further fuel discussion on this topic would be I, Robot.

I, Robot, directed by Alex Proyas, discusses human-robot interactions and its complications. Spoiler alert, in the movie there is a full fledged war between the robots and their creators. Aside from being another awesome Will Smith movie with epic fight scenes, great graphics (for the time it was made, at least), and a cool concept, it taps into serious questions we must ask ourselves as we move into this new era of increased dependence on machines. This raises many questions, as what happens when the creations become better than the creators and want more power? I feel that just this question could stimulate much discussion in our class, and people would want to throw in more than just their ‘two cents’!

Watching this movie at a deeper lever we can analyze and argue for the case of ‘should we keep producing highly intelligent and autonomous robots?’. I feel like it would be beneficial for us to create a mock argument of this. Split the class in two groups: one that is pro-robot dependance, and one that is not. Each side could have the weekend to create their arguments and draft their ideals, and then they meet during the next class for the ultimate showdown. Professor Laville would be the mediator, making sure things don’t get too heated up. This exercise would be beneficial because it would give us all public speaking skills, argument skills, and it would change things up and get us on our feet.

I really do think I, Robot would be a good addition to the curriculum. It’s a great blockbuster movie that carries a deep, controversial message. It fits in seamlessly with the ‘technology and the sense’ theme, and includes a fun activity that we could have fun with and learn valuable skills at the same time.

Works Cited

I, Robot. Dir. Alex Proyas and Akiva Goldsman. Screenplay by Jeff Vintar. Perf. Will Smith, Bridget Moynahan, and Bruce Greenwood. 20th Century Fox, 2004. Film.