Dear Dean Forman,

As a new school year approaches, I know that the University is looking for new things to integrate into the Creating Emory curriculum. I would like to suggest an article that would do an amazing job of complimenting the initiative of Creating Emory, and this article is “Why People Code Switch.” This article, which would be read and then discussed by each orientation group. As opposed to most of the discussions that take place in Creating Emory on different cultures and they way they interact, this article investigates how the same culture interacts with itself. By reflecting on the reasons behind code-switching, students become more awake of the social pressures we all face to speak or act in certain ways. After all, how are students supposed to truly understand and be open to all of the different cultures around them when they do not even understand their own? My hope is that through work-shopping this article, that students will become awake of the misconceptions they have of those around them, not necessarily because they prejudiced or ignorant, but because they are aware of the social pressures affecting those around them to speak and act differently than how they truly are. Maybe after a little bit of enlightenment and awareness of the code-switching phenomenon, students will not only have a better understanding of those around them, but also become aware of the times they code-switch due to social pressures and be fearless enough to challenge the social norm, speak and act how they want to. A more aware community is one that is able to embrace its true self.

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Required Reading

There are several very interesting articles that we have read throughout the semester in my English 100 class about technology and the senses but there was one that stood out to me especially because of the way that it relates to Emory University and one of its major ideals. This was the Sherlock Holmes story, “The Adventure of the Cardboard Box” by Arthur Doyle.

Emory University stresses research on a daily basis. Emory University encourages research throughout all fields and areas of study in the college and graduate studies. One of the six main links on the Emory University’s homepage is dedicated solely to research. This shows how integral research is to the university. There are examples everywhere of why the leaders of Emory University believe research is an amazing opportunity for students. As a result of these amazing research opportunities I occasionally find myself wondering whether I should be participating in this aspect of Emory more than I currently do. Emory could take their love of research of the next level by requiring all students to read “The Adventure of the Cardboard Box” by Arthur Doyle. This would show students the commitment of the university to research and how research is not necessarily just done in a lab with biology or chemistry but it can be done in all fields of study.

Doyle’s “The Adventure of the Cardboard Box” is not what I would consider to be literature that I expect to read in school. However, there are definite benefits of this reading. While being a very interesting and entertaining story, “The Adventure of the Cardboard Box” gives the reader a clear understanding of how research can help someone on a daily basis. Although Sherlock Holmes’s research is not necessarily what students would be researching, his experiences with inference and examination of specific situations show how dedication to a topic can result in major successes for the researcher and many others as well.

Doyle’s “The Adventure of the Cardboard Box” has an exciting plot as opposed to many other pieces of literature that we normally read in school. This short story contains many different plot twists and exciting moments that one would not expect from school literature. Sherlock Holmes is able to understand the crime completely before anyone else and then informs the audience and the people whom he works with after he has solved the mystery himself. These amazing inference and research skills shown Holmes show how research of a specific topic can result in major successes.

If all Emory University students were required to read Arthur Doyle’s “The Adventure of the Cardboard Box” it would give them a better understanding of ways in which research at Emory is not what we all think of on a daily basis, but how it can be in many different forms. I believe with the addition of this reading to the curriculum for all Emory University students would increase the student participation in research and show all students how important research is to Emory University.

Final Blog Post

I have really enjoyed my time in this class. During this class, we have explored how technology has changed and actively affects our lives, and through our readings, movie screenings, the games we’ve played/explored, and our historical ad objects and looked at how things have changed with several of our senses, such as those of taste and smelling. In addition, all of the works that we have read or gone through have augmented our experiences, especially some of the depression simulation ones and such. But, despite this, I wish that there were some other works that we had read.

One such work that I wish we had gone over was the movie, The Matrix. This movie is interesting in many different ways. It has a commentary on technological innovation, our brain and our senses, and has a philosophical standpoint as well. But, for this class, technology and the senses, we would focus on the former two points for our discussions.

In regards to the technological aspects, we have often discussed technology and how it has affected our lives. Our historical objects focused on just that: how certain objects affected one of our senses or changed the way we saw, tasted, or etc. things. While the movie does not specifically delve into those such subjects it does, as a backstory, talk about what happens when we go too far with technology. What happens when we go too far in the name of science and technology, and create something we can no longer control? For that matter, what happens when we try combining ourselves with technology, as what happened in the movie. But even further than that, we can start discussing exactly what it is our senses are, something which is introduced in the very beginning of the movie.

The movie opens up with our protagonist, Neo, getting strange instructions, and soon, we learn that the world he was living in the whole time doesn’t really exist. Or does it? Just because it is in a computer doesn’t quite mean it doesn’t exist. The computer (an insanely powerful one, I might add) simulated for all the different people (or programs) what certain sensations what feel like and sent that to either the program’s central processes or in the case of humans, through wires to their brains. So, once we have this basic premise down, we can start discussing a couple of things. What is it exactly that makes up our existences? Our experiences, sensations, and memories? But, if these can all be fabricated through electronic means, what exactly does it mean to live? And in that case, what exactly are our senses? What makes them up, and what are they?

While I don’t have a particular answer to these, I would love to see these question answered. I feel like a lot of people may watch the movie for the movie, and may not ask themselves these questions, either because it is in a movie or because the technology seems so far away. But the technology is not necessarily the focus here. Rather, I am asking everyone to consider the questions raised by the technology in the movie.

Historical Advertising Study: The Camera

The camera is an object that has been developed and redeveloped over the years to bring about a revolution in the way we “see” things. With the popularity of this electronic device growing immensely ever since it’s inception, companies that develop the camera have been coming up with creative advertising campaigns to sell their product to consumers. When the camera first hit the market, inventors believed that the device could sell itself, which is why advertisement campaigns surrounding the camera were very rare in the late 18th century. Since Kodak paved the way to technological advancement when it came to the development of the camera, they produced some of the first advertisements for the camera and consequently had the widest reach in terms of audience. George Eastman, founder of Kodak, was considered to be one of the key factors behind the popularization of the camera. His work with the development of the device helped bring the camera to the common man and made photography a mainstream phenomenon. Entering the market with a simple yet catchy slogan that read “you press the button, we do the rest,” Kodak made capturing images sound extremely simple. Eliminating the public perception of a cumbersome, complex process behind clicking pictures, Kodak’s advertising campaign was the main component behind its success in the past. In fact, today’s Kodak is known not only for photography, but also for imaging applications that can be used in a variety of industries.

The first advertisement by Kodak published in a popular magazine nearly a year after the invention of the camera was a very small image placed onto the bottom of a page. This picture was very basic in terms of design and only looked to incorporate the essentials. Since the computer wasn’t a very advanced design tool at the time, a hand drawn picture of the camera was the highlight of the advertisement when it came to graphics. Kodak’s slogan, “you press the button, we do the rest,” was emphasized in the center of the advertisement along with the name of the company. Kodak uses its brand value or ethos to attract audiences. Known as one of the largest producers of cameras and photography related products at the time, choosing to highlight the name of the company would create great awareness amongst the audience. Another very important component of this advertisement that attracts attention is the caption that goes along with the slogan, which reads, “the only camera that anybody can use without instructions”. This caption appeals directly to the audience through persuasion as the company tries to convince potential customers that it is extremely easy to operate a Kodak camera. The rest of the advertisement focuses on providing important information such as price and sellers information. At this point in time, it was very important for the company to advertise wisely as the camera had just been introduced to the world. Spreading the word and successfully publicizing the object would be the key to its success in the future.

Another advertisement that was published by Kodak as a result of the success of the camera came in contact with the public through the means of a magazine. This time, the company decided to publish a full-page advertisement to increase the reach of their campaign and build on to their consumer base. This advertisement, unlike the previous one, was more colorful and used an actual image as its central component. Published in the year 1913, this advertisement was created by the company with the intention of improving on the quality of the previous campaign. The first thing that grabs the attention of the viewer here is the large picture that takes up more than half of the page. This image is a colored sketch of a couple holding up their Kodak camera whilst they are out at sea on their boat. The lady that has been captured in this image is holding up the camera as if it were a trophy, a proud possession that she values greatly. The man in the background is smoking from a pipe and is wearing fancy clothes, telling us that the couple is well off and extremely happy with their purchase. The caption below this image reads: “At the moment- the fun of picture taking- afterward the joy of possession. There’s all this for those who keep the personal story of their outings with a Kodak.” Here, the advertisement appeals to the audience’s pathos in talking about the “joy of possession” and the “fun of picture taking”. This advertisement is trying to highlight the fact that photography can be an enjoyable hobby and that the camera is an essential purchase for every family. The image of the couple on the boat suggests that the company is looking to appeal to a certain target audience, as the duo seems to be well off financially. Finally, another striking aspect of this advertisement is the way the name of the company has been highlighted. “Kodak” has been written in bold print across the page. As mentioned earlier, this decision appeals to the consumer’s logos and urges the public to purchase this product with the comfort of brand value.

The final advertisement published by Kodak in the year 1919 in the “Country Gentleman” magazine looks to attract a specific audience by pin pointing their target consumer. The central element of this full-page advertisement is the black and white picture of a bull. Unlike the advertisements that were discussed previously, this commercial contains an actual image taken by the advertised product. Looking to attract readers of the “Country Gentleman” magazine, this advertisement has been tailored specifically to grab their attention as seen through the incorporation of the image of the bull. As opposed to a picture of something scenic, the head of the campaign chose to use this picture as it appeals to the target audience. A small box towards the end of the page contains the text component of the advertisement and contrasts the image in the background to stand out. Yet again, the name of the company has been highlighted to create logos and enforce the credibility and reliance that comes with the name that is “Kodak”. Further, the caption says “YOU can take pictures like this- can make a Kodak album of everything that interests you. It’s simpler and less expensive than you think.” Like the previous advertisements, this one looks to create pathos and appeal to the audience by putting emphasis on something the target audience would appreciate.

In conclusion, it can be said that Kodak has followed a very similar advertising model over the years. Relying heavily on their brand name, the company has always decided to put emphasis on the name of the company, making it the first thing the audience sees. Another observation that can be made on the basis of the analysis of these advertisements is that the company resorts to advertising through the means of magazines and selects its target audience on the basis of the readers of the given magazine. Finally, Kodak always puts the power in the hands of the consumer, appealing to their emotions and making them believe that this product would be perfect for them.


Works Cited:

Kodak. “The Kodak Camera” [K0538]. Advertisement. 1889. Duke U. Rare Book and Manuscript Lib. Ad* Access. Web. 1 Dec. 2014.

Kodak. “The Kodak Camera” [K0163]. Advertisement. 1913. Duke U. Rare Book and Manuscript Lib. Ad* Access. Web. 1 Dec. 2014.

Kodak. “Kodak” [K0280]. Advertisement. 1917. Duke U. Rare Book and Manuscript Lib. Ad* Access. Web. 1 Dec. 2014.

Historical Ad Analysis: Teddy Bears

The teddy bear phenomenon began in 1902 when the President of the United States at the time, President Teddy Roosevelt refused to kill a bear on a hunting trip. While, President Roosevelt was on the trip, news got around very quickly of what he had done and before he knew it he was the inspiration for what would become one of the most successful toys of all time. However, because this was a time with no Internet or TV, the only advertisements were written in newspapers, catalogs, magazines etc.

The first known written advertisement for the bear didn’t come until 1906. It was an advertisement for E. I. Horsman and was published in Playthings Magazine. This ad was the first time that the toy was formally published with the simple title, “Teddy’s Bears.” The first thing noticed from the ad is how simple it is. With just a simple sketch of a teddy bear in the upper left corner and a large title, it likely stood out in the sea of writing in the magazine, which was likely the entire point of doing so. It came out before Christmas, in hopes of appealing to shoppers. The ad has one line in it that is purposefully bolded in order to make it appeal to both sexes, “Dolls, Toys and Games.” This is important in the marketing strategy of the ad because the word “Dolls” is more feminine and is aimed toward catching parents of girls, while the words “Toys and Games” makes it seem more fun and masculine making it appealing towards the parents of boys, thus making it a gender neutral item. Lastly, the ad contains a line that says that the teddy bear “Contains everything new and desirable for Holiday Trade.” This line makes the reader want to buy the bear by using the words “new and desirable” which are very appealing to most and make people want to buy things. The only thing that’s missing is a price for the bear.

Another written advertisement was published in Sears Roebuck Catalog in 1908 with the title, ““Teddy Bears” Are All the Rage. The Best Plaything Ever Invented.” This ad is very different from the original ad from 1906. This ad is much more wordy and intricate in that there are four bears on the top followed by a long paragraph presumably about the bears. The bears at the top are very eye catching. They are all different sizes and are all holding hands and representing, love, affection, and care, and resemble a family. The ad briefly mentions that it could be for adults as well as children, but it is mainly geared towards parents in hopes that they will buy them for their children. It mentions that it can be bought for both your little girl and little boy as well as that they are “practically unbreakable.” It ends the paragraph on the product details of the bear explaining that there is no other toy in the world that will give your kids “more actual pleasure and entertainment.” This is an effective way to end because it hopefully will leave the reader wanting to buy it because most parents want their children to be happy and entertained. Finally, in the bottom corner, there are a list of prices, provided in a neat and organized way, which makes it easy to order.

Lastly, an advertisement published ten years later, in the 1916 Sears Catalog, is far more detailed than both of the earlier ads. This ad has very intricate drawings of little girls playing with the teddy bears. Below each bear is a description of the type of bear above it. This ad repeatedly mentions how great of a deal these bears are because of their high quality at such a low price, which is their big sale pitch.

Overall, the three ads are similar in that they each have drawings of teddy bears and mention that both boys and girls can use and play with them. The ads also mention how durable and soft they are. Each of the ads is straightforward and easy to follow, in that nothing is confusing or complicated. There is an obvious increase technology from 1906 to 1916 because the ad goes from being plain and boring with very few words and details to multiple images and paragraphs. The details and information in the ads increased as the years went by, most likely because the audience, they are trying to attract is changing from people who don’t have one, to people who probably already have one, but might be interested in purchasing a newer and nicer one.

Works Cited

E. I. Horsman. “Teddy’s Bears” Advertisement. Sept. 1906. Playthings Magazine. Web. 21 Nov. 2014.

Sears Roebuck Catalog. “Teddy Bears Are All the Rage. The Best Plaything Ever Invented.” Advertisement. 1908. Sears Roebuck Catalog. Web. 18 Nov. 2014.

Sears Roebuck Catalog. “Teddy Bears are more popular than ever” Advertisement. 1916. Sears Roebuck Catalog. Web. 21 Nov. 2014.

Hershey’s Kisses

Some of the first Hershey’s Kiss advertisements were made in the Confectioners Journal. Hershey’s Kisses were created in 1907 and throughout the first fifteen years of production of Hershey’s Kisses, the Confectioners Journal released many interesting advertisements beginning in 1909.

In the first advertisement, made in 1909, “Hershey’s Milk Made”, there are very few words. The viewer is not prompted to read or look at the advertisement in any specific way because of the lack of directionality in the ad. However, the viewer’s eyes are first drawn to the picture in the middle, showing are Hershey’s Kisses in a box, because of its magnitude. Surrounding the transparent part of the box, which allows the viewer to see the kisses inside, the box says “Hershey’s Milk Made Chocolate Kisses.” This shows that The Hershey Company is very dedicated to showing what goes into their products creating a good reputation for the company. This advertisement also shows the genuine nature of Hershey’s Chocolate on the front of the box, which says “The genuine bears this signature” followed by Milton Hershey’s signature. This shows that there was a competing product at the time that looked similar to Hershey’s Kisses but this allows the viewer to recognize the difference in products and ensures that they buy the “correct” product that has Milton Hershey’s signature on the side. One of the next things that the viewer may notice is the left side of the box, which says “10 Cents”. In today’s dollars that is about $2.52 but the advertisement does not say how many kisses are included in the box. This is ambiguous for the customer looking to buy this product because they do not know how many Hershey’s Kisses or the weight of the bag that they would get for 10 cents. This may point to the fact that the advertisers assume that the consumers have enough money to pay for the Hershey’s Kisses no matter how many they are getting in the package that they buy. This advertisement is most likely for a younger audience because of its whimsical font and use of shiny foil on the kisses. The shiny foil wrapping on the Hershey’s Kisses and whimsical writing on the box may draw children in to look at the advertisement. This would cause the children to ask their parents to buy it for them, thus making them aware of the product as well.

The second advertisement for Hershey’s Kisses made in July 1921 is called “Hershey’s Liberty Bells.” The viewer’s eyes are first drawn to the title “Hershey’s Liberty Bells” because of its size in comparison to the rest of the text on the advertisement. From there the advertisement prompts you to read down in order to get the rest of the information about the product. Additionally, there are two pictures of the liberty bells showing them in pails at different angles. This allows the viewer to see about how many Hershey’s Kisses are contained within the package. Also if the viewer continues to read down the page there is a description of the size of the pails available for purchase (25, 5, or 2.5 pounds). However, there is no mention of the price for any of the three pails. Since this publication could not be in color the advertisement describes Hershey’s Liberty Bells as being “wrapped in Red, White and Blue Tin Foil.” This shows that the company cares about representing their product in the most descriptive way as possible in order to inform the customer of what they may be buying. It can be assumed from this advertisement that the Liberty Bells were a special occasion purchase because of the fact that this advertisement was released in July of 1921 and they are wrapped in the aforementioned color tin foils. Hershey released this product for Independence Day. This becomes even clearer with the statement at the bottom of the advertisement: “They Ring True to Reputation.” This play on words shows the good reputation of The Hershey Company and its Hershey’s Kisses. This advertisement was most likely directed toward young Americans who have some disposable income. This can be assumed because of the idea of Independence Day represented throughout with pictures and because of the lack of pricing information available for the pails mentioned in the advertisement.

The third advertisement, “Genuine”, is different from the two previous advertisements because of the lack of pictures. This shows that this advertisement, made in May 1922, is most likely directed toward adults. However, the lack of pictures is still strange because there is not much to catch the eye of the reader of the journal. Instead of including pictures or whimsical fonts, this advertisement focuses on the genuineness of Hershey’s Kisses. The most prominent word in this advertisement is ‘“GENUINE”’. The Hershey Company continues to establish themselves as a reputable company, which can be trusted by customers. This idea continues throughout this advertisement where it states “Be Sure They Contain the Identification Tag ‘HERSHEY’S”’. This may also show that within the customers of Hershey’s Kisses there was some confusion about which product is a Hershey’s product and which product is not. The Hershey Company was obviously concerned that they were losing sales because of this confusion, which may have prompted this advertisement.

All of the advertisements serve similar purposes but they differ in small ways of conveying their respective messages. The first two advertisements use pictures and words to convey their messages while the third advertisement uses only words to get its point across to the consumer. The first advertisement looks to be directed the most toward children however, the front of the box suggests that the parents should be looking at it to in order to make sure that the children buy that they saw in the advertisement, instead of a competing product. The second advertisement uses pictures and a longitudinally descending text to include both of these groups of people. Lastly, the third advertisement is mostly directed at adults because of its lack of pictures and abundance of text. Together the advertisements show that The Hershey Company is trying to target many different types of people, not limiting their market by race, age, gender or religion.

All three advertisements strangely do not explain the pricing of the products very well to the viewer. The first advertisement sets the price of the box shown as 10 cents but does not explain how big the box actually is or how many Hershey Kisses the box contains. Conversely, the second advertisement describes the size of the pails but makes no mention of the price of any of them. The third advertisement makes no mention of the price or the amount of Hershey Kisses. This contributes to the idea that The Hershey Company may be targeting people who have some disposable income and can plan on buying Hershey’s Kisses without knowing exactly what they cost.

Lastly all of the advertisements focus on the genuine representation of Hershey Kisses and/or the reputation of The Hershey Company. The first advertisement uses the word genuine on the front of the box to show that in order to get genuine Hershey Kisses the consumer should be looking for Milton Hershey’s signature on the box, which shows that they are looking to build a reputation for the company. The second advertisement takes this further and focuses on the true reputation of The Hershey Company. The play on words used as the last line of the advertisement shows that The Hershey Company has already established a good reputation and this new product will continue that reputation into the future. The third advertisement, like the first advertisement, makes sure that the consumer is buying the correct product. This shows that The Hershey Company really cares about the reputation they built for themselves with the Hershey’s Kisses and wants to continue to build upon that reputation into the future by ensuring that the consumer buys the correct product.

Works Cited:

The Hershey Company. “Genuine”. Advertisement. Confectioners Journal May 1922: 18. University of Chicago. Web. 21. Nov. 2014.

The Hershey Company. “Hershey’s Liberty Bells”. Advertisement. Confectioners Journal July 1921: 30. University of Chicago. Web. 21. Nov. 2014.

The Hershey Company. “Hershey’s Milk Made”. Advertisement. Confectioners Journal 1909: University of Chicago. Web. 21. Nov. 2014.

Marketing without Consequence

The chemical saccharin has not changed much since it was first discovered in the late 1900s. Today’s saccharin is almost chemically identical to the original substance. However, when looking at the product through a social lens, one will see that saccharin has been put through a rollercoaster of public opinion. During the twentieth century, the vacillating American opinion on sugar substitute—its health risks, its health benefits, and its economic benefits—launched the product into the forefront of the nation’s attention and scrutiny. Many of the fluctuations in saccharin sales were due to the events occurring in the country at the time: wars, social movements, et cetera. By the late twentieth century, it would have been difficult to find a circular not announcing discounts on saccharin, pills, liquid, or powdered. Due to its strong ties to American culture, saccharin advertisements came to reflect the events and mindsets surrounding the nation during their respective time period.

During the sugar shortage of World War I, many saccharin advertisements focused on the patriotism of purchasing the substance. One particular advertisement found in the October 24, 1919 issue of The Washington Post, boasts the headline “SACCHARIN—THE PUREST OF ALL SWEETENERS—IS RELIEVING THE SUGAR SITUATION” (Classified Ad 1). The ad immediately throws credibility at the reader, claiming that it is not only a sweetener, but it is superior to all others. The ad—which is simple, box-shaped, linearly structured—then goes to read that not only is saccharin a supernal sweetener, but also it is patriotic product, “aid[ing] to American health and economy” (Classified Ad 1). Much like many other advertisements during this particular time period, the logos of the advertisement appeals to American patriotism, explaining how this product will end up helping the war effort, assuming that the reader is both in support of the war effort and wanting to support the country in any way possible. Claiming that buying sugar substitute is supporting the war effort and the American economy, however, is a stretch to say the least, but given the mindset of the period, this classified was probably very effective.

After World War II—and the respective sugar shortage that came with it as well—saccharin evolved from being purely a sugar substitute to a diet regiment around the time that dieting became popular in the United States. In a 1958 issue of the Los Angeles Times, a saccharin advertisement was strategically placed next to two ladies’ fashion pictures. The saccharin bulletin—which is clearly aimed at females explaining that the company’s upgraded saccharin is perfect for “cooking, canning, baking too” (Display Ad)—assumes women seeing the adjacent advertisements will feel a want to look like the models in the picture. Chauvinistic, shallow-minded, but sadly accurate, this particular posting is expertly placed and worded. At the time in American history when dieting was just becoming popular and women were striving to look like the models pictured, an easy, cheap way to cut calories is conveniently next to their goal. The way it is laid out, it appears as if saccharin is the precursor to the skinny bodies that the models possess.

Not too long after the second ad mentioned was published was the American Feminist movement, which caused advertisements to veer away from appealing to women dieting and to general dieting instead. A classic example was published in a 1970 issue of the New York Times. This particular classified still boasts the no calorie advantages of saccharin; however, it instead addresses its audience as “dieters!” (Classified Ad 369). This ad, which did not have any other paid advertisements surrounding it, focuses on the health benefits of its saccharin-based products, the delicious taste, and even medical benefits of using their saccharin hot chocolate and milk shake mixes. The only pictures displayed are of a mug of hot cocoa and glass filled with what is presumably a milk shake. Because of the Feminist Movement occurring that the time, the publishers strategically made the decision to omit any gender bias.

Nowadays, the saccharin ads of the early to mid-twentieth century seem plain, unflashy. When the bulletins are put into the context of the time period they were published in, however, it becomes apparent that obnoxious, attention grabbing, flash-appeal was not needed when the words and placements used were so heavily significant. Saccharin was already deeply rooted into American culture, which caused a dilemma for advertisers. Marketers did not need to announce what their product was, but needed to convince consumers why they needed to buy more product. The answer to the advertisers’ problems lied in the politics of America. Armed with the current issues of their time, these marketers were able to produce advertisements with incredibly strong pathos. Much like saccharin, which was sweetness without consequence, this marketing technique was advertising without social consequence.

Works Cited

“Classified Ad 1 — No Title.” The Washington Post (1877-1922) 24 Oct. 1919: 10. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The Washington Post (1877-1997). Web. 1 Dec. 2014. <https://login.proxy.library.emory.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.proxy.library.emory.edu/docview/145724200?accountid=10747&gt;. Copyright – Copyright The Washington Post Company Oct 24, 1919 Last updated – 2010-05-29

“Classified Ad 369 — No Title.” New York Times (1923-Current File) 08 Mar. 1970: 1. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: The New York Times (1851-2010). Web. 1 Dec. 2014. <https://login.proxy.library.emory.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.proxy.library.emory.edu/docview/119105899?accountid=10747&gt;. Copyright – Copyright New York Times Company Mar 8, 1970 Last updated – 2010-05-24

“Display Ad 22 — No Title.” Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File) 29 Dec. 1958: 1. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881-1990). Web. 1 Dec. 2014. <https://login.proxy.library.emory.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.proxy.library.emory.edu/docview/167375242?accountid=10747&gt;. Copyright – Copyright Times Mirror Company Dec 29, 1958 Last updated – 2010-06-01

Historical Ad Analysis

Due to the fact that my original historical object is ultrasound machines and at the time that it came out and even in this day and age it is not advertised very much or at all, I chose to look at ads focused on women at the time that ultrasound machines were first invented.

My first advertisement is a woman cooking breakfast and looking very happy. The advertisement is for a drug that reduces the symptoms of morning sickness so that even while she is pregnant, women can still do the normal duties of a wife. This ad came out in 1959, just a few years after the ultrasound machine was created. Many ads that I looked at this time period, including this one and the other two ads that I will be focusing on are very sexist. The ad is saying that even if you are sick because you are pregnant, you need to still maintain all of your normal duties as a wife. The fact that she is smiling in the picture could be due to the fact that she is no longer feeling sick, but the fact that she is smiling could also be contributed to the fact that she is happy cooking breakfast for either her family or her husband. She is also not obviously pregnant, which is interesting due to the fact that this ad is geared toward pregnant women who suffer from morning sickness. This could be to help men pay attention to the ad to widen the consumer consumption of the ad because there is an attractive woman in the ad instead of a large pregnant woman.

http://www.bonkersinstitute.org/medshow/mornidine.html

My second ad is also very sexist and came out in 1952, just four years prior to the invention of ultrasounds. I chose this ad to also show that sexism was prevalent before and after the invention of my historical object. This ad is for a coffee company. Like the first ad, it focuses highly on the duties of the wife to her husband. In this ad it shows that the wife should be making sure that she is buying fresh coffee and if she is not and her husband finds out, “woe be unto you!” This ad shows that if you do not perform your duties as a wife correctly and your husband finds out, you deserve to be subject to domestic violence from your husband. This ad is geared toward women and is trying to sell their product by saying that if you buy this product you won’t have to worry about disappointing your husband. This ad, like the last, shows that men are the dominant gender.

The third ad that I chose is of a woman holding a bottle of the product they are trying to sell and was published in 1961. I chose to analyze this ad because unlike the other two ads that showed men as the dominant gender, this ad shows women as being helpless and needing help to do simple tasks like opening bottles. The ad also underlines the word “woman” emphasizes that it is surprising that a woman can open this bottle and therefore showing the easy use of the bottle. This would appeal to consumers because the bottle is easy to open. This could be seen that since women are able to open this bottle they won’t have to ask their husbands to do it and can therefore complete their work more easily and efficiently. They could also open this bottle if their husband is not home to help them so they don’t have to wait for their husband to get home to complete their duties as a wife.

Analyzing all of these ads together paints a bleak picture for women around the time of the invention of ultrasound machines. It is also not just these ads that paint this picture; as looking through other ads, many of them showed women as the weaker gender. The first two ads show that wives have a specific role in the home and they need to complete their tasks to be a successful wife. The second one even goes as far to show the consequences of not doing your duties correctly and the first one shows that it doesn’t matter what state of health you are in, you must find a way to complete your duties. Overall, men are shown to be the dominant gender and women are expected to serve their husbands in any way they need. This theme was strewn across many more ads that I came across in my search for these three ads.

Kenwood Chef Advertisement. 1961. Postcard. You Mean a Woman Can Open It…? The

            Woman’s Place in the Classic Age of Advertising. Holbrook, MA: Adams Media

Corporation, 1999. Print.

Chase & Sanborn. “If your husband ever finds out”. Life. 11 August 1952. 103. Web. 1 December 2014.

Mornidine. “Now she can cook breakfast again”. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 1959. Web. 1 December 2014.

Historical Analysis of Advertisements for Coca Products

The first article is a newspaper advertisement for Burnett’s “Cocoaine” in the Charleston Mercury paper on February 19, 1859. This product is promoted as hair care products that essentially cure most hair related issues. This product claims to: strengthen hair, prevent hair loss, remove dandruff, softens hair, and is not greasy or sticky. This product immediately comes off as a scam to someone living in the 21st century because “cure-all” drugs don’t ever do what they intend. Also, the products themselves have cocaine in them or even have cocaine in the name of the product, which is highly illegal in today’s world. The advertisement assumes that the customers buying the product are initially skeptical of the product, being that it can cure all of these hair-related ailments. The advertisement has a testimonial about the product to confirm what the ad is claiming to be true. The ad claims that any person of any age, socio-economic status, and race can use this product. However, this ad does focus on the main fear of an unhealthy scalp and unhealthy or unattractive looking hair. The ad’s rhetoric during the time this ad was released would have been very successful, but however in today’s society this ad would have been very unsuccessful with its rhetoric. The ad could have been improved by decreasing its benefits to just one, which would be dandruff removal or to improving scalp health. Having a wide range of benefits to one product is often very deceiving to the public eye, and often is mistrusted. Another way this advertisement’s rhetoric could have been improved is if there were multiple first-hand accounts from people who have used this product. The more proof that this product works the better the ethos for the product. Also, since the ad is all text, adding some sort of images or examples of the product would help this

The second article is also a newspaper advertisement, but it is for French Coca Wine. This elixir was advertised in The Atlanta Constitution during April 29th, 1885. This elixir is supposed to cure a multitude of ailments ranging from: depression, memory loss, insomnia, appetite loss, headaches and kidney diseases. This ad, just like the first article, claims to be a cure-all end all for a wide range of ailments, which denotes to its credibility. Who would honestly believe that one product could possibly cure all of these diseases and ailments. The fact that this product also cures “kidney diseases” is quite damaging to the article’s ethos because the category of kidney diseases is extremely broad. The ad is very clear about what the product does, but however the credibility of the product is very questionable. Its target audience is also very broad, generalizing anyone who wants to improve their health and live longer. In order to improve the ad’s effectiveness three items need to be including/excluded. One, the advertisement itself needs to have an image of the product itself, somewhat legitimizing that this product does in fact exist and is not just some mystical elixir written about in this purely text advertisement. Two, what the product cures needs to be refined to one or two conditions. If the product’s benefits are refined to one or two conditions the product seems to be more real than if the product claims to cure a wide range of conditions. Thirdly, the product needs some sort of first-hand examples of how this product works and if it works at all because currently there is no way to judge how or even if this product works.

The third article, just like the first two articles, is a newspaper advertisement. However, this ad is for Merck’s Chemicals and Drugs. This ad was published in The Time of India on March 4th, 1903. This advertisement is trying to sell medical grade cocaine, quinine, and other mercurials. The ad claims to be selling products that are not only medically and pharmaceutically recognized, but of high purity. The products are intended for medicinal, technical, and analytical purposes. Immediately the reader should be concerned about this product because if a product is for analytical purposes, it most likely should not be used for medicine, since it’s still being tested. Also the products in question do not show how the product itself can be used in any of these fields. The article advertises it’s award-winning quality, but awards specifically did the products win? There are a lot of holes in the ethos of this advertisement. There are multiple ways this ad could be improved; these improvements are very similar to the ways the first two articles could be improved. One, include photos of the products that Merck’s Chemicals and Drugs is trying to sell to somewhat legitimize the claims of quality and medical properties and also showing pictures of the awards that were won. Two, refine and specify the uses of the products in order to legitimize the products more than their very generalized use they are originally advertised for. Finally, the advertisement should include first-hand accounts from people who have used each of the products to again legitimize the product more than general award winning claims.

Works Cited:

Article 1: “Classified Ad 3 — no Title.” The Charleston Mercury (1840-1865) Feb 19 1859: 2. ProQuest. 1 Dec. 2014 .

http://search.proquest.com.proxy.library.emory.edu/news/docview/507779965/83AFC20E13446C4PQ/1?accountid=10747

Article 2: “Display Ad 10 — no Title.” The Atlanta Constitution (1881-1945) Apr 29 1885: 6. ProQuest. 1 Dec. 2014 .

http://search.proquest.com.proxy.library.emory.edu/news/docview/494981955/1EA44C3E24E64D6DPQ/7?accountid=10747

Article 3: “Classified Ad 21 — no Title.” The Times of India (1861-current) Mar 04 1903: 10. ProQuest. 1 Dec. 2014 .

http://search.proquest.com.proxy.library.emory.edu/news/docview/231280703/BDEF0A4BA354BE1PQ/4?accountid=10747

Airline Ads

Rather than focusing on the limited amount of airline advertisements form the early 1900’s, I decided to discuss modern airlines’ ads before and after 1970 when, as argued in my historical object literary review, was a time when technology’s role in commercial aviation began to change. The two ads before 1970 are both for American air carriers Pan Am and American Airlines and the post-1970 ad is for European carrier KLM. Despite the apparent incontinency in my comparison, all three ads are aimed at an American audience.

Looking at American Airlines’ advertisement from a 1959 Variety magazine, the first thing that is apparent it the Being 707 taking off. The plane itself is located in the center of the page, and there is text above and below the image. The text on top reads “AMERICAN the Jet Airline – announces Jet Flagship Service to San Francisco -” and the text blow the image continues “in addition to the only Jet Service to LOS ANGELES – twice daily.” The interesting thing about this ad is how it breaks up its core message with the image of the plane. The reason for this break is that the ad is highlighting the introduction of what the ad later describes as “the magnificent Boeing 707” to San Francisco. In fact with the slogan “The Jet Airline,” American appears to define itself through its use of the Boeing 707. It is interesting to note how the airline defines itself through the use of what was at the time a technological icon, being one of the fastest, quietest and safest planes every built. In addition to the obvious appeal to people traveling to and from San Francisco, the ad attempts to define American Airlines as the most advanced airline in the US. It tries to change the public perception of the airline as much as the ad tries to get people to take its new flight to San Francisco.

The next ad is a Pan Am ad that was published in as 1963 edition of Vogue Magazine. The ad itself consists of a large image of a Pan Am bag in front of some ancient Roman ruins. Under the image is a caption that reads, “Wherever in the world you travel, you’re better off with Pan Am – World’s Most Experienced Airline!” Under the image is a block of text with the header: “Now see Europe with this worldly escort and save!” In comparison to the American Airlines ad, the Pan Am ad focuses on the destination rather than the journey by highlighting its “Pan Am offices [that] are ready to help you with everything from sightseeing to hotel reservations.” Furthermore, Pan Am offers a program called “a Woman’s Way to See Europe” that puts you in touch with a “Pan Am Man” who will help any woman plan her trip to Europe on the “World’s Most Experienced Airline.” Knowing that the ad is made to appeal to women, it is interesting to note the use of the handbag as being a guide. It seems that the ad argues that just as the handbag is a must have for any woman in the 1960’s, the Pan Am guide to Europe is just as essential.

The final ad is a very specific KLM advertisement from 1989 found in Billboard Magazine. The ad consists of a picture of a blue and white sky with “Start your European tour with limos, private jets and exceptional service” and “Before your fist album goers platinum” in quotation marks on the image of the sky. With these two lines and the subsequent text underneath the image, it is obvious that the ad is appealing to up and coming rock bands that are looking for a way to spread their music to Europe. An interesting thing about this ad is how specific its target audience is. While the Pan Am addresses all women wanting to fly to Europe and the American ad appeals not only to San Francisco travelers but anyone who takes a plane, the KLM ad defines and addresses a very small yet popular audience. The last line before listing KLM’s reservation numbers says “even if your act doesn’t have an album at the top of the charts, they can still travel in the style they hope to be accustomed to.” This line makes it apparent that this high class KLM service is a status symbol and a way to legitimize the popularity of your band.

While the KLM advertisement appeared forty years after the first modern commercial aviation ads like the American Airlines and Pan Am ads, all three have the same structure, consisting to of a picture with a block of text under the image. However, while the American Airlines ad tries to sell its state of the art technology, the other two ads try to sell an experience rooted in reliability. In fact, KLM’s slogan at the time was “The Reliable Airline” and Pan Am’s slogan a very similar “World’s Most Experienced Airline,” both a far cry from “The Jet Airline” that American was known as. Yet it is important to highlight that all three ads attempt to sell an experience in addition to an actual service. While the experience changes based on the airline, there isn’t an ad that strives to be the airline will just “get you there” as there is now with budget airlines like Spirit and Southwest Airlines. At this time people seem to take pride in the airline they take, and the airlines analyzed draw on the natural alignment with an airline that passengers take.

Works Cited

 “Advertisement: World’s most Experienced Airline.” Vogue Sep 15 1963: 10. ProQuest. Web. 30 Nov. 2014 .

“Whenever You Fly, Rely on AMERICAN AIRLINES THE JET AIRLINE.” Variety (Archive: 1905-2000) Mar 18 1959: 27. ProQuest.Web. 30 Nov. 2014 .

“The Reliable Airline KLM Royal Dutch Airlines.” Billboard (Archive: 1963-2000) Jul 08 1989: 14. ProQuest. Web. 30 Nov. 2014 .